Presentation on theme: "Alimentary system Respiratory system Urinary system Genital system"— Presentation transcript:
1 Alimentary system Respiratory system Urinary system Genital system Part Ⅱ SplanchnologyAlimentary systemRespiratory systemUrinary systemGenital systemVisceraMale Genital systemFemale Genital system
2 But the viscera have some general features. 1.Lacations:within or near the important cavities.2.Tube: each system has a tube with a opening3.The main functions of the viscera are fulfill the metabolism and maintain the life of the species.General structures of the visceraHollow organsSolid organs: Hilum
3 The reference lines of the thorax and abdomen regions Ⅰ. The common used reference lines of the thoraxsternal linemidclavicular lineparasternal lineanterior median line-腹股沟中点
4 paravertebral linescapular lineposterior median line(midvertebral line)
5 Ⅱ.The abdominal regions upper right quadrantupper left quadrantlower left quadrantlower right quadrant
6 9 regions hypochondrium epigastric region subcostal plane flank umbilical regiontranstubercular planegroinpubic regionmidclavicular line
7 Chapter 5 The alimentary system (digestive system) digestive canaldigestive glands
10 Section 1 The Oral Cavity Consists of two partsOral vestibule : between cheeks and lip and teethOral cavity proper: within arch of teethOral vestibule leads, by the space behind the molar teeth, into the oral cavity properBoundariesAnterior and lateral: gum and teethPosterior: oropharyngeal isthmusRoof: palateFloor: tongue, muscles and mucous membrane
11 PalateTwo partsHard palate: anterior 2/3, formed by the maxilla and palatine boneSoft palate: posterior 1/3UvulaPalatoglossal archPalatopharyngeal archOropharyngeal isthmus superiorly formed by the soft palate, both sides of palatoglossal arches, and root of tongue inferiorly.
13 Teeth General features Two sets: Classification: Deciduous Permanent IncisorsCaninePremolarsMolars
14 Deciduous teeth: are 20 in number Ten teeth in each mandibular and maxillary archCentral incisor, lateral incisor, canine, first molar and second molar in each quadrantUpper jaw Ⅰ Ⅱ Ⅲ Ⅳ Ⅴ total 20Lower jaw in. in. can. mol. mol.Eruption: stars at about 6 mouth of age and continues to beginning of two yearsShedding: occurs between 6th and 12th years with replacement by permanent teeth
16 Permanent teeth (adult): are 32 in number Sixteen in each mandibular and maxillary archTwo incisors, one canine, two premolars, and three molars in each quadrantUpper jaw total 32Lower jawFirst permanent molar－ appears at about 6 yearsThird molars (wisdom teeth)－many erupt at any time after 12 years of age or not at all (impaction).
18 General description Each tooth consists of 3 parts: Crown Neck Root Dental cavity－contains connective tissue, blood vessels and nerves, and is continuous with the periodontal tissue through the root canal and apical foramen.
19 The types of the permanent teeth incisorscaninepremolarsmolars1 root of tooth roots ( below) or 3(above) roots
20 crown of tooth neck of tooth root of tooth root canalGingivae (gums):oral mucosa that surround the teeth and cover adjacent regions of the alveolar bone.
21 Calcified tissues Periodontal tissue Dentine－ is a yellowish white tissue, that forms the bulk of tooth.Enamel －is a head, brittle white tissue that covers the crown of the toothCement－is an unusual form of bone that covers the root of the toothPeriodontal tissuePeriodontal membraneAlveolar boneGum
22 Tongue －muscular organ Two parts: divided two parts by v-shaped terminal sulcusBody of tongue －ant 2/3， apex of tongue －free rounded tipRoot of tongue － post 1/3At the apex of terminal sulcus is a small median pit, the foramen cecum of tongue
23 Lingual mucous membrane Papillae of tonguefiliform papillaefungiform papillaefoliate papillae contain taste budsvallate papillaeLingual tonsil－masses of submucosal lymphoid tissue on the root of tongue
25 Inferior surface of tongue Frenulum of tongue －a midline fold of mucous membrane connecting tongue to floor of mouthSublingual caruncle －small elevationSublingual fold
26 frenulum of tonguesublingual foldsublingual carunclesublingual gland
27 Muscles of tongue Intrinsic muscles of tongue Involved in changing shape of tongueInclude longitudinal, transverse and vertical muscles of tongueExtrinsic muscles of tongueGenioglossusArises from mental spine of mandible and inserts into either side of midline of tongueAction: acting together draw tongue forward and downward (depresses and protrudes tongue ); acting along making apex of tongue to opposite side
29 Major salivary glands Parotid gland superficial part and deep part triangular in shape, lies below and in front of the external acoustic meatus, and partially covers the masseter.Parotid duct: arises front anterior border of gland, runs over the masseter a finger’s breadth below the zygomatic arch to pierce the buccinator and opens into the mouth cavity, opposite the upper second molar tooth
30 Submandibular gland Sublingual gland Position: lies in submandibular triangle, between anterior and posterior bellies of digastricDuct opens on to sublingual caruncleSublingual glandPosition: situated beneath the mucous membrane of the floor of mouthDuctsMajor sublingual duct－opens onto the sublingual caruncleMinor sublingual ducts－open onto the sublingual fold
31 Section 2 The Pharynx General features A –fibromuscular tube, part of digestive and respiratory systemsExtends from base of skull to the inferior border of cricoid cartilage (lower border of C6 level)Three segments
32 nasopharynxsoft palateoropharynxupper marginof the epiglottislaryngopharynxInferior border of the vertebra C6
33 Nasopharynx －posterior to nasal cavities Extends from the base of skull to level of soft palateStructuresOpening of the pharyngotympanic tubeTorus tubariusPharyngeal recessPharyngeal tonsilopening of the pharyngotympanic tubepharyngeal tonsiltorus tubariuspharyngeal recesspalate tonsilOropharynx －posterior to oral cavityLies below soft palate, extends to upper border of epiglottisPalate tonsils
34 Laryngopharynx Structures Piriform fossae －lies on each side of the inlet of larynx.piriform fossa
35 Section 3 The EsophagusGeneral features － a muscular tuber about 25cm long, connecting the pharynx at level of C6 vertebra, passes through the diaphragm at level of T10 vertebra and after 1~2 cm enters the stomachDivision:Cervical partThoracic partAbdominal part
36 Four constrictionsAt its beginning, 15cm from incisors, lies at level of C6, is the narrowest part of the esophagusWhere it is crossed by the arch of aortaWhere it is crossed by left main bronchus, 25cm from incisors, lies at level of intervertebral disc between T4 and T5.Where it passes through the esophageal hiatus of diaphragm, 40cm from incisors, at level of T10
37 junctionarch of aortaleft main bronchusesophageal hiatus
38 Section 4 The StomachPosition: in the epigastric,umbilical, and left hypochondrium regions.
39 Shape-J-like shape Four regions Two surface: anterior and posterior Two openingsCardiaPyloric orifice: Pyloric sphincterFour regionsCardiaFundus of stomachBody of stomachPyloric part: Pyloric antrum and Pyloric canal
40 Fundus of stomachCardiaBody of stomachPyloric canalPyloric antrumPyloric part
41 Two curvaturesLesser curvature : short, concave and directed to the right and upward, near its lower part is angular incisureGreater curvature : long, convex and directed to the left and downward, at the junction of left margin of esophagus and greater curvature is cardiac notch
43 Section 5 The Small Intestine About 6-7m long,Divided intoDuodenumJejunumIliumDuodenumJejunumIlium
44 Duodenum Four parts Superior part Descending part Inferior part Duodenal capSuperior duodenal flexureDescending partLongitudinal fold of duodenumMajor duodenal papillaMinor duodenal papillaInferior duodenal flexureInferior partAscending partduodenojejunal flexure
45 ampulla (duodenal cap ) circular mucosal folds pylorussuperior partsuperior duodenal flexureampulla (duodenal cap )circular mucosal folds
50 Jejunum and ileum Characteristics Jejunum Ileum Position Upper 2/5 Lower 3/5DiameterGreaterLessWallThickerThinCircular foldsLarger, numerous and large villiFewer，smaller and less abundant villiVascularityColourDeeper redPaler pinkLymphatic folliclesSolitaryAggregatedFat in mesenteryMore
51 Section 6 Large Intestine Approximately 1.5m long,Five parts:CecumVermiform appendixColonRectumCanal
52 Large Intestine Features LargerTaeniae coliHaustra of colonOmental appendice
54 CecumBlind sac, first part of large intestine, with largest diameter and thinnest wallLies in right iliac fossaThe ilium enters the cecum obliquely, and partially invaginates into it, forming the ileocecal valve－consists of two folds, probably delays flow of ileal contents into large intestine
56 Vermiform appendixBlind worm-like tube, 6－8cm long, about 0.5cm in diameterOpens into posteromedial aspect of cecum，about 2 cm below ileoceal orificeThe base at the appendix lies at the point of convergence of three colic bands (used as a guide to find the appendix during operation)
58 Surface marking of the base is at the so-called McBurney’s point which is at junction of lateral and middle thirds of line joining right anterior superior iliac spine and umbilicus
59 Mesentery of vermiform appendix Triangular mesentery－extends from terminal part of ileum to appendixAppendicular a. runs in free margin of the meseoappendix then along wall of appendixTip variable in positionPreilealPelvicRetrocecalRetroilealSubcecal
60 Colon Ascending colon Transverse colon right colic flexureTransverse colonleft colic flexureDescending colon descends almost vertically from left colic flexure to sigmoid colon at left iliac crest.Sigmoid colon－extends from descending colon to rectum at level of S3.
61 RectumPosition: within pelvic cavity, extends from S3 to pelvic diaphragm.CurvesSagittal planeSacral flexure convex backwardPerineal flexure convex forward.Coronal planeUpper and lower part－convex to the right.Middle part－convex to the left.Lower part of rectum dilated, to form ampulla of rectum,three transverse folds of rectum
63 Anal canal Anal columns －6-11 in number, Anal valves Anal sinuses Anorectal linePectinate lineAbove line, of endodermal originBelow line, of ectodermal originAnal pectenWhite line (anocutaneous line)AnusAnal sphinctersSphincter ani internusSphincter ani externus
64 anal columnsanal sinusanal valvessphincter ani internusanal pectensphincter ani externuspectinate linewhite line
65 Comparison between the sites above and below the pectinate line the site above the pectinate line the site below the pectinate line epithelium simple cuboidal epithelium stratified squamous epitheliumaterial supply superior and inferior rectal artery anal arteryvenous return hepatic portal vein internal iliac veinlymph drainage lumbar lymph nodes superficial inguinal lymph nodesinnervation visceral nerves somatic nerves
66 Section 7 The Liver Position Most of liver lies in the right hypochondrum and epigastric region, less part extending into the left hypochondrum.
67 Shape Two surfaces Divided into right and left areas by falciform lig. Diaphragmatic surface Convex and smoothDivided into right and left areas by falciform lig.Visceral surface
68 right triangular ligament left triangular ligament falciform ligmentligamentum teres hepatis
69 Visceral surface －has a H-shaped fissures and grooves Left limb of HAnteriorly: fissure for ligamentum teres hepatisPosteriorly: fissure for ligamentum venosumRight limb of HAnteriorly: fossa for gallbladderPosteriorly: sulcus for vena cava
70 Cross-bar of H is the porta hepatis: traversed by right and left hepatic ducts, left and right branches of proper hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein, nerves and lymphatic vessels. These structures which are surrounded by connective tissue called hepatic pedicleFour lobes: left, right, quadrate and caudate lobes
71 Left lobe Right lobe Caudate lobe Quadrate lobe Inferior vena cava fissure for ligamentum venosumCaudate lobeLeft lobeRight lobefissure forligamentum teresQuadrate lobeligamentum teres hepatisgallbladder
72 porta hepatis ※※portalveincommonhepaticducthepatic artery proper
73 Inferior border –thin and sharp Notch for ligamentum teres hepatisNotch for gallbladder
74 The segments of the liver The segmentation of the liver, bases upon the principal divisions of the proper hepatic artery and accompanying hepatic ducts and hepatic portal vein－Glisson system.The hepatic veins, however do not follow the same pattern and vary: their main tributaries tend to run rather intersegmental.
75 Section 7 Extrahepatic Biliary Apparatus CompositionGallbladderCystic ductLeft and right hepatic ductsCommon hepatic ductBile duct
76 GallbladderPosition :lies in fossa for gallbladder on visceral surface of liverFour partsFundus of gallbladderSurface projection: at the junction of right midclavicular line and right costal archBody of gallbladderNeck of gallbladderFunction: receives,stores and concentrates bile
77 cystic ductneck of gallbladderbody of gallbladderfundus of gallbladder
78 Biliary duct systemRight and left hepatic ducts unite outside of liver to form the common hepatic ductCystic duct joins common hepatic duct to form bile duct
79 Bile duct and pancreatic duct run obliquely through the wall of the descending part of duodenum where the two ducts usually unite to form the hepatopancreatic ampulla (ampulla of Vater), which rounded by sphincter of hepatopancreatic ampulla (sphincter of Oddi), each has an independent sphincteric mechanism for regulating flow, and opens at the major duodenal papilla
80 Bile is secreted by the liver cells Right and left hepatic ductsBiliary ductuliCommon hepatic ductCystic ductGallbladder (store, concentrate)when the fat enters the small intestine, the gallbladder contracts, the sphincter of hepatopancreatic ampulla relaxBile ductMajor duodenal papilla
81 major duodenal papilla right hepatic ductleft hepatic ductcystic ductcommon hepatic ductbile ductpancreatic ducthepatopancreatic ampulla(ampulla of Vater)major duodenal papilla
82 Triangle of CalotBoundaries: the common hepatic duct on the left, the cystic duct on the right, the liver, superiorilyContent: cystic artery
83 Sect ion 8 The Pancreas Shape and Position A soft yellowish lobulated glandLies behind the peritoneum on the posterior abdominal wall, roughly at the level of of L1~L2
84 Five parts Uncinate process Head - Flattened and located in C-shaped curvatune of duodenumUncinate processNeck－constricted partBodyTail－runs in base of splenorenal ligament to reach hilum of spleen
85 Pancreatic duct Main Pancreatic duct Accessory pancreatic duct Begins at tail and throughout glandJoins common bile duct before entering descending part of duodenum at major duodenal papillaAccessory pancreatic ductOpens 2cm above main duct at minor duodenal papilla
86 Pancreas FunctionThe pancreas is both an exocrine and an endocrine gland.The exocrine portion of the gland produces a secretion that contains enzymes that are capable of hydrolyzing proteins, fats, and carbohydrates.The endocrine portion of the gland-the pancreatic islet produces the hormones insulin that play a key role in carbohydrate metabolism.
87 Highlights Definition of superior and inferior alimentary canal. Structures of the soft palate.Definition of oropharyngeal isthmus.Structures of mucous membrane of tongue.Action of genioglossus.Names, position and openings of salivary glands. Classification of pharynx and structures of the nasopharynx.Constrictions of esophagus.Shape and structures of stomach and duodenum.
88 Highlights Structures of descending part of duodenum. Position of caecum and vermiform appendix. Characteristic of cecum and colon.Position of ileocecal valve.Shape of rectum.Structures of anal canal.Shape and position of liver. Position and structure of porta hepatis.Boundaries and content of Triangle Calot. Formation of biliary ducts.Position and shape of pancreas.