2Characterizations of Goods, Services or Resources Excludability:Excludable when it is possible to prevent a person from enjoying its benefits.accounting servicesapplediamond mineconcert.
3Excludability:Nonexcludable if it is virtually impossible to prevent someone from benefiting from it.Fish in oceanradio programnational defensestreet lightair qualityMaintenance of dams and main canal in irrigation system.
4Rivalry:Rival if its use by one person decreases the qty available for someone else.accounting servicesapplediamond mineMcDo-Cartier bridge on Monday morningAir quality
5RivalryNonrival if its use by one person does not decrease the qty available for someone else.concert (if seats left)national defenseradio programMcDo-Cartier bridge on Sunday morningLaw and order
6Where would you classify the following? An ideaTrees in the forestMusicSoftwareCity parkExcludability is generally a question of degree that may depend on law, norms, customs, and technology of both production and protection.
7Classification of goods Private goods: Rival and excludable.applemy gardenmy officePublic goods: Nonrival and nonexcludable.national defenselaw and orderstreet lights
8Common resources: Rival and nonexcludable. ocean fishearth’s atmosphereNatural monopolies: Nonrival but excludable.Uncongested bridgeUncongested cable TVUncongested internetUncongested electricity or phone gridNB Called natural monopoly because one firm can usually provide service at lower cost than two or more firms.
9Public goods and the free-rider problem Free rider: A person who enjoys the benefits of a good or service without paying for it.Little incentive to contribute towards public goods.Public goods are generally under-supplied without gvt intervention.What is the right amount of PG to supply?
10Example of PG Lisa and Max Common parking No security lighting: NonexcludableNonrival(graphic)
11For a PubG, the SMB is the vertical sum of PMB at each qty. For a PrivG, the SMB is the horizontal sum of PMB at each price.Other example: Helicopters for Canadian peacekeeping
12Public provision of PubG Done through political process.Example:PubG: heli. for Peacekeeping missions2 parties: Doves and HawksHawks prefer 300 heliDoves prefer 100 heliRest of electoral platforms are identical
13Political processSame deadweight losses: Cannot predict election outcomeNot an equilibrium…Equil at 200 heli.Voters are indifferent and outcome is efficient.Example of competition in the “political market-place” which leads to efficient resource allocation.
14Political ProcessResult depends on strong assumptions of perfect info re:how voters compare parties’ platformswhat politicians know about voters’ welfare1. Informational problem:When bureaucrats have different objectives than max social welfare and are better informed than voters and politicians.eg: Bureaucrats may aim for max budget.exaggerate costs of heliPress for more heliNB Remember importance of education for democracies: positive externalities.
152. Rational ignorance: When voter decides not to acquire info because MC of doing so is larger than expected MB.Large no of voters implies MB of acquiring info is small compared to MC.Technicalities are left to bureaucrats.Heli. builders have large incentives to be well informed and lobby politicians. They have a disproportionate influence on decision to buy heli.
16Explaining gvt growth?1. Changing voter preferences: Income elasticity of demand for PubG >1.highwaysairportseducationint’l peacekeeping
172. Inefficient provision: Bureaucrats aim at budget max in the presence of rational voter ignorance.
18COMMON RESOURCESWhen resources are owned in common in such a way that they can be freely accessed, they will tend to be overexploited.cod fisheries in AtlanticGHG in atmosphereforest in the AmazonWhy?
19Ex: The FisheryThe free access equilibrium (2 graphics)
20The FisheryThe MPB is the catch that one fisher gets when he goes with his boat.The MSB is the increase in the total catch of the fishery from that additional boat.MSB accounts for the fact that adding a boat reduces the catch of all other boats.
21At the individual (private) level, each fisher does not account for the effect he has on other fishers.He only cares about his own catch.Negative externalityNB After 5000 boats, MSB is actually negative! How is that possible?
22Efficient use implies MPB>MC : Tragedy of the Commons: Takes place when large number of people access a resource without any restriction.Incentives to conserve are virtually absent: If I don’t catch the fish, someone else will.Efficient use implies MPB>MC :Individual incentives to overfish
23Achieving efficiency 4 types of solutions: Property rights Quotas ITQs Managed CPR
241. The property rights solution Give the fishery to one person: Social and private benefits coincide.EfficientNB The problem was again one of absence of PR over a resource.Other ex: Frequency spectrum for cell phonesgvt assigns PR through auctions
25Problem with private PR: How does one enforce PR on the Atlantic?Amazonian forest?Atmosphere?A River?Calls for more direct gvt intervention.
26Quotas Set no. of boats at 4000. Efficient Incentives to cheat may be large at 4000 boats.Requires monitoringIs no. of boats easier to verify than pure exclusion?Iceland: Limiting no. of boats led boat owners to saw boats in two and make them longer to carry more fish… Inefficient
27Individual Transferable Quotas Same idea as transferable emissions permitsNB Not clear why this would reduce monitoring costs. Maybe because quotas will go to those who value them most?
28Managed CPRs (Esp in LDCs) Property in common but entry is not free.Community has rules, social norms, customs, that can be enforced, including quotas.People are punished for violating those rules.Is a managed common a private PR with many owners or gvt intervention?