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1 Sugarcane bagasse- filled poly (vinyl chloride) composites: An alternative use of sugarcane bagasse Riza Wirawan 1 Mohd. Sapuan Salit 2 Robiah Yunus.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Sugarcane bagasse- filled poly (vinyl chloride) composites: An alternative use of sugarcane bagasse Riza Wirawan 1 Mohd. Sapuan Salit 2 Robiah Yunus."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Sugarcane bagasse- filled poly (vinyl chloride) composites: An alternative use of sugarcane bagasse Riza Wirawan 1 Mohd. Sapuan Salit 2 Robiah Yunus 2 Khalina Abdan 2 1 Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Indonesia 2 Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia. SugarAsia 2012 Bangkok, ay 2012

2 2 What is poly (vinyl chloride) PVC? Source: – Chlorine (56.8%): NaCl – Hydrocarbon: ethylene less affected by the cost of petroleum and natural gas than other polymer Atomic mass: Cl=35.5; H=1; C=12

3 3 Why (PVC)? Advantages – low cost – easy to fabricate – high durability – outstanding chemical resistance to wide range of corrosive fluids – offer more strength and rigidity than most of the other thermoplastics Widely used!

4 4 Price of Thermoplastics (March 2009)* *http://www.plastemart.com

5 5 Disadvantages: Safety and environmental issues – Vinyl chloride (VC) is reported can make serious health problem – When PVC is processed, it produces hydrogen chloride and dioxins => damage the atmosphere The issues have provoked environmental groups to criticize concerning its mass utilization!

6 6 Ban PVC? – many factories will be closed – many labours will loose their job Generates many social problems* *especially in developing countries PVC

7 7 An alternative: Mixing PVC with natural fibre, as natural fibre/PVC composites: – reduce the utilization of PVC – reduce its inconveniences while conserving its advantages

8 8 What is sugarcane bagasse (SB)? Chemical contents of bagasse: – cellulose (35-40%) – natural rubber (20-30%) – lignin (15-20%) – sucrose (10-15%) Fibre can be found in two parts of bagasse: – inner (pith) – outer (rind) Vilay V., Mariatti M., Taib R., and Todo M. (2008). Effect of fiber surface treatment and fiber loading on the properties of bagasse fiber– reinforced unsaturated polyester composites. Composites Science and Technology, 68(3-4), 633–638.

9 9 Why SB? – One of the natural fibres: environmental friendly – It is a residue (low cost) – the availability of it, as a waste, is high – Worldwide production of sugarcane: Over 1.4 billion (10 9 ) tonnes per year** Utilization of sugarcane bagasse may contributes to environmental and economic development. *Lee, S.C and Mariatti, M. (2008). The effect of bagasse fibers obtained (from rind and pith component) on the properties of unsaturated polyester composites. Materials Letters. 62, 2253–2256 * * FAO. Food and Agricultural Commodities Production. retrieved on 23 January 2010.

10 10 Trend of natural fibre composites: thermoset thermoplastics Demand: window/door profiles, fencing/siding/railings, furniture, flooring, automotive interior parts, pallets/crates/boxes, marine components, electrical plugs, wiring ducts. Kline & Company, inc. (2000). Opportunities for Natural Fibers in Plastic Composites, 2000, retrieved on October 14 th 2008.

11 11 Pith or Rind? Compatibility? Effect of thermal history & recyclability?

12 12 FibreTreatment Fibre Content Reinforcement Effect* Source sE WoodNontreated-+ Djidjelli et al. 2002; Ge et al (2004) WoodPMPPIC++Kokta et al. 1990; BambooSilane-+Ge et al Sisal Maleic Anhydride-+Djidjelli et al Oil PalmNontreated-+Abu Bakar et al Oil PalmAcrylic-+Abu Bakar et al Rice StrawNaOH-N/AKamel 2004 Sugarcane BagasseBenzoic Acid++Zheng et al * + represents increasing of the property with the increasing of fibre content - represents decreasing of the property with the increasing of fibre content Abu Bakar, A., A., H., and A.F.M., Y. (2005). Mechanical and thermal properties of oil palm empty fruit bunch-filled unplasticized poly (vinyl chloride) composites. Polymers and Polymer Composites, 13 (6), Djidjelli H., Vega J.J.M., Farenc J., Benachour D. (2002). Effect of wood flour content on the thermal, mechanical and dielectric properties of poly(vinyl chloride). Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, 287(9), 611–618. Kamel S. (2004). Preparation and properties of composites made from rice straw and poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC). Polymers for Advanced Technologies, 15(10), Kokta B.V., Maldas D., Daneault C., and Beland, P. (1990). Composites of polyvinyl chloride-wood fibers. I. effect of isocyanate as a bonding agent. Polymer-plastics Technology and Engineering, 29 (1-2), Zheng Y.-T., Cao D.R., Wang D.S., and Chen, J.-J. (2007). Study on the interface modification of bagasse fibre and the mechanical properties of its composite with PVC. Composites: Part A, 38 (1),

13 13 Thermal history affects the morphology of polymer (i.e. degree of crystallinity). In SB/PVC composites? One of the thermoplastics advantages against thermoset is the recyclability. In SB/PVC composites?

14 14 to investigate the effect of fibre loading and fibre source (pith and rind) on the mechanical properties of SB/PVC composite. to investigate the effect of fibre loading and fibre source (pith and rind) on the thermal properties of SB/PVC composite. to determine the influence of various chemical treatments on the tensile properties of SB/PVC. to examine the influence of thermal history on the tensile properties of SB/PVC composite.

15 15 PVC: unplasticised poly (vinyl chloride) compound (PVC) IR045A supplied by Polymer Resources Sdn. Bhd., Kelang, Selangor, Malaysia. SB: residue of the sugarcane milling process gathered from sugarcane juice makers in Malaysia

16 16 Start specimen preparation fibre preparation PVC preparation material characterizations Conclusion literature study composite processing Heat Treatment recycling data analysis General Flow Chart

17 17 PithRindPVC Pith/PVCRind/PVC Tensile Density Tensile Impact Flexural DMTA Water absorption Thickness swelling Density Tensile Density

18 18 Single fibre tensile test

19 19 Single fibre tensile test: Weibull distribution 0 is Weibull scale parameter or the characteristic stress value m is Weibull parameter that measures the variability of the fibre strength. Larger value of m means smaller scatter in strength value. The cumulative failure probability,

20 20 Single fibre tensile test: Weibull distribution Where n is the number of fibres that failed at or below a certain value of stress. N is the total number of fibres measured The cumulative failure probability, P i, under a particular strength was approximated by Li, Y., Hu, C., and Y. Yu Interfacial studies of sisal fiber reinforced high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites. Composites: Part A, 39,

21 21 Single fibre tensile test: Weibull distribution Failure probability distribution of SBF at certain tensile stress m = and 0 = MPa

22 22 Weibull Parameter ValueVariability Tensile Strength (Mpa) Pith Rind Young's Modulus (Mpa) Pith Rind Maximum Strain (%) Pith Rind

23 23 Tensile test of PVC and composites

24 24 Impact test of PVC and composites

25 25 Flexural test of PVC and composites

26 26 Fibre loading & fibre source vs thermal properties PithRindPVC Pith/PVCRind/PVC DMTA

27 27 DMTA of PVC and composites pith rind

28 28 the effectiveness of fillers on the modulus of the composites* measured E values at 60 and 100 o C were employed as E G and E R, respectively *L. A. Pothan, Z. Oommen and S. Thomas, Dynamic mechanical analysis of banana fiber reinforced polyester composites, Composites Science and Technology (2) 63 (2003), Lower value=more effective

29 29 DMTA of PVC and composites pith rind

30 30 matrix Interface layer Fibre Volume of interface layer.

31 Bagasse Washing (sugar removal) Alkali treatment Untreated Benzoic acid treatment PMPPIC treatment PMPPIC Alkali Benzoic Acid Washed Composite processing

32 32 Tensile test of composites after various treatments

33 33 SEM a: washed b: unwashed

34 34 SEM SEM micrograph of (a) unwashed, (b) untreated sugar-free, (c) benzoic acid treated, (d) alkali treated, and (d) PMPPIC treated SB/PVC composites

35 35 Material preparation Melt mixingHot pressing AnnealingQuenching Tempering at 60 o C (30 min) QuenchingAnnealing HP-Q HP-A T-A T-Q

36 36 No effect to the tensile strength of PVC Significant effect to the tensile strength of composite (especially for HP-A)

37 37 No effect to the tensile modulus of PVC Significant effect to tensile modulusof composite (especially for HP-A)

38 38 Significant effect to the strain at break of PVC No significant effect to strain at break of composite.

39 39 T- Q-R T- A-R HP- A-R HP- Q-R T-QT-A HP- A HP- Q Melt mixing Hot pressing Quenching

40 40

41 41

42 42 Best tensile strength and modulus: 40% rind/PVC. However, its impact strength is lower than that of unfilled PVC. Pith/PVC offers higher thermal stability. Thermal stability of pith/PVC composites increased with the increase of fibre content. Best treatment: no treatment Among all of the studied thermal histories, quenching process offers the highest tensile properties of SB/PVC composites. Cooling of PVC at a lower rate resulted in lower strain at break, while low-rate cooling on SB/PVC composite resulted in lower tensile strength and modulus. Conclusions

43 43


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