1 Sugarcane bagasse- filled poly (vinyl chloride) composites: An alternative use of sugarcane bagasseRiza Wirawan1Mohd. Sapuan Salit2Robiah Yunus2Khalina Abdan21Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Indonesia2Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia.SugarAsia 2012Bangkok, ay 2012
2 What is poly (vinyl chloride) PVC? Source:Chlorine (56.8%): NaClHydrocarbon: ethyleneless affected by the cost of petroleum and natural gas than other polymerAtomic mass: Cl=35.5; H=1; C=12
3 Why (PVC)? Advantages low cost easy to fabricate high durability outstanding chemical resistance to wide range of corrosive fluidsoffer more strength and rigidity than most of the other thermoplasticsWidely used!
4 Why (PVC)? Price of Thermoplastics (March 2009)* *http://www.plastemart.com
5 Disadvantages: Safety and environmental issues Vinyl chloride (VC) is reported can make serious health problemWhen PVC is processed, it produces hydrogen chloride and dioxins => damage the atmosphereThe issues have provoked environmental groups to criticize concerning its mass utilization!
6 PVC Ban PVC? many factories will be closed many labours will loose their jobGenerates many social problems**especially in developing countries
7 An alternative: Mixing PVC with natural fibre, as natural fibre/PVC composites: reduce the utilization of PVCreduce its inconveniences while conserving its advantages
8 What is sugarcane bagasse (SB)? Chemical contents of bagasse:cellulose (35-40%)natural rubber (20-30%)lignin (15-20%)sucrose (10-15%)Fibre can be found in two parts of bagasse:inner (pith)outer (rind)Vilay V., Mariatti M., Taib R., and Todo M. (2008). Effect of fiber surface treatment and fiber loading on the properties of bagasse fiber–reinforced unsaturated polyester composites. Composites Science and Technology , 68(3-4), 633–638.
9 Why SB? One of the natural fibres: environmental friendly It is a residue (low cost)the availability of it, as a waste, is highWorldwide production of sugarcane: Over 1.4 billion (109) tonnes per year**Utilization of sugarcane bagasse may contributes to environmental and economic development.*Lee, S.C and Mariatti, M. (2008). The effect of bagasse fibers obtained (from rind and pith component) on the properties of unsaturated polyester composites. Materials Letters. 62, 2253–2256* * FAO. Food and Agricultural Commodities Production. retrieved on 23 January 2010.
10 Potential application Trend of natural fibre composites:thermoset thermoplasticsDemand:window/door profiles,fencing/siding/railings,furniture,flooring,automotive interior parts,pallets/crates/boxes,marine components,electrical plugs,wiring ducts.Kline & Company, inc. (2000). Opportunities for Natural Fibers in Plastic Composites, 2000, retrieved on October 14th 2008.
11 The challenges Pith or Rind? Compatibility? Effect of thermal history & recyclability?
12 Effect of fibre content to mechanical properties of natural fibre PVC composites TreatmentFibre Content Reinforcement Effect*SourcesEWoodNontreated-+Djidjelli et al. 2002; Ge et al (2004)PMPPICKokta et al. 1990;BambooSilaneGe et al. 2004SisalMaleic AnhydrideDjidjelli et al. 2007Oil PalmAbu Bakar et al. 2005AcrylicRice StrawNaOHN/AKamel 2004Sugarcane BagasseBenzoic AcidZheng et al. 2007* + represents increasing of the property with the increasing of fibre content- represents decreasing of the property with the increasing of fibre contentAbu Bakar, A., A., H., and A.F.M., Y. (2005). Mechanical and thermal properties of oil palm empty fruit bunch-filled unplasticized poly (vinyl chloride) composites. Polymers and Polymer Composites , 13 (6),Djidjelli H., Vega J.J.M., Farenc J., Benachour D. (2002). Effect of wood flour content on the thermal, mechanical and dielectric properties of poly(vinyl chloride). Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, 287(9), 611–618.Kamel S. (2004). Preparation and properties of composites made from rice straw and poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC). Polymers for Advanced Technologies , 15(10),Kokta B.V., Maldas D., Daneault C., and Beland, P. (1990). Composites of polyvinyl chloride-wood fibers. I. effect of isocyanate as a bonding agent. Polymer-plastics Technology and Engineering, 29 (1-2),Zheng Y.-T., Cao D.R., Wang D.S., and Chen, J.-J. (2007). Study on the interface modification of bagasse fibre and the mechanical properties of its composite with PVC. Composites: Part A , 38 (1),
13 Thermal History Recyclability Thermal history affects the morphology of polymer (i.e. degree of crystallinity).In SB/PVC composites?RecyclabilityOne of the thermoplastic’s advantages against thermoset is the recyclability.In SB/PVC composites?
14 Objectivesto investigate the effect of fibre loading and fibre source (pith and rind) on the mechanical properties of SB/PVC composite.to investigate the effect of fibre loading and fibre source (pith and rind) on the thermal properties of SB/PVC composite.to determine the influence of various chemical treatments on the tensile properties of SB/PVC.to examine the influence of thermal history on the tensile properties of SB/PVC composite.
15 MaterialsPVC: unplasticised poly (vinyl chloride) compound (PVC) IR045A supplied by Polymer Resources Sdn. Bhd., Kelang, Selangor, Malaysia.SB: residue of the sugarcane milling process gathered from sugarcane juice makers in Malaysia15
19 Single fibre tensile test: Weibull distribution The cumulative failure probability,s0 is Weibull scale parameter or the characteristic stress valuem is Weibull parameter that measures the variability of the fibre strength. Larger value of m means smaller scatter in strength value.
20 Single fibre tensile test: Weibull distribution The cumulative failure probability, Pi, under a particular strengthwas approximated byWhere n is the number of fibres that failed at or below a certain value of stress.N is the total number of fibres measuredLi, Y., Hu, C., and Y. Yu Interfacial studies of sisal fiber reinforced high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites.Composites: Part A , 39,
21 Single fibre tensile test: Weibull distribution Failure probability distribution of SBF at certain tensile stressm = and s0 = MPa
28 C coefficientthe effectiveness of fillers on the modulus of the composites*measured E’ values at 60 and 100 oC were employed as E’G and E’R, respectivelyLower value=more effective*L. A. Pothan, Z. Oommen and S. Thomas, Dynamic mechanical analysis of banana fiber reinforced polyester composites, Composites Science and Technology (2) 63 (2003),28
42 ConclusionsBest tensile strength and modulus: 40% rind/PVC. However, its impact strength is lower than that of unfilled PVC.Pith/PVC offers higher thermal stability. Thermal stability of pith/PVC composites increased with the increase of fibre content.Best treatment: no treatmentAmong all of the studied thermal histories, quenching process offers the highest tensile properties of SB/PVC composites. Cooling of PVC at a lower rate resulted in lower strain at break, while low-rate cooling on SB/PVC composite resulted in lower tensile strength and modulus.