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Shale gas in Poland – prospects and challenges

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1 Shale gas in Poland – prospects and challenges
Unconventional Gas & CO2 Storage Laboratory Shale gas in Poland – prospects and challenges Marcin Lutyński Silesian University of Technology Gliwice, Poland

2 One of the biggest technical universities in Poland,
the University consists of fifteen faculties which offer about 50 courses and almost 200 specializations, -the University employs 1863 scientific-didactic staff, including 173 titular professors and 237 doctors of science, -at present there are almost 29,000 students at the University. The Rector’s insygnia

3 A lecture at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering in the 1950s
History: the Silesian University of Technology was founded on 24th May 1945 with setting up of four faculties: Mechanical, Electrical, Metallurgical and Civil Engineering, the first inauguration of the academic year at the University in Gliwice took place on 29th October 1945 and 2750 students began their studies, so far, 114 thousand engineers have graduated from the University which has also granted 3,5 thousand PhD and 550 DSc degrees. A lecture at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering in the 1950s

4 A class at the Faculty of Architecture
International Cooperation: - the Silesian University of Technology participates in European programmes for academic exchange: LLP-ERASMUS, CEEPUS - Central European Exchange Program for University Studies, STF – Scholarship and Training Fund, CEI – Central European Initiative, Support for the International Mobility of Researchers. A class at the Faculty of Architecture

5 Faculty of Architecture
Faculties: Faculty of Architecture Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Computer Science Faculty of Biomedical Engineering Faculty of Civil Engineering Faculty of Chemistry Faculty of Electrical Engineering Faculty of Mining and Geology Faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering Faculty of Applied Mathematics Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Faculty of Materials Science and Metallurgy Faculty of Organization and Management Faculty of Transport Foreign Language College Institute of Physics – Centre for Science and Education The Silesian University of Technology gives an opportunity to develop in any field

6 The main entrance to the building of the Faculty of Mining and Geology
employs 30 professors and PhD DSc holders and 113 PhD holders, conducts research into modern mining technologies comprising geological prospecting, economically efficient extraction of mineral deposits, application of energy–efficient and reliable machines, compliance with all safety regulations and protection of the natural environment. The main entrance to the building of the Faculty of Mining and Geology Courses: Mining and Geology - Safety Engineering

7 Energy dependence rate of EU countries in 2008
The most important suppliers of crude oil and natural gas were Russia (33% of oil imports and 40% of gas imports) and Norway (16% and 23% respectively). Denmark is the only net energy exporter: -36,8%

8 Energy dependency rate, EU-27, 2006-2009
2007 2008 2009 All products 53.7 53 54.7 53.9 Solid fuels 41 41.3 44.7 41.1 Crude oil 83.9 83.6 85 84.1 Natural gas 60.8 60.3 62.3 64.2

9 The new source? Unconventional Gas – Shale Gas Global spread in shale gas resources

10 Unconventional Gas… What’s that…?
According to National Petroleum Council: „natural gas that cannot be produced at economic flow rates nor in economic volumes of natural gas unless the well is stimulated by a large hydraulic fracture treatment, a horizontal wellbore, or by using multilateral wellbores or some other technique to expose more of the reservoir to the wellbore”

11 Unconventional Gas Reservoirs
deep gas tight gas gas-containing shales (SHALE GAS) coalbed methane (CBM) geopressurized zones Arctic and sub-sea hydrates

12 Unconventional Gas Resources
Resources Pyramid

13 Conventional Gas reservoir
Tight Gas reservoir Conventional Gas reservoir Główne formy występowania gazu ziemnego w łupkach, tj. jako gaz wolny w przestrzeni porowej, powstałej w miejscach skupienia substancji organicznej w wyniku redukcji jej objętości na skutek przemian związanych z generowaniem węglowodorów (zaznaczone kolorem żółtym), a także jako gaz adsorbowany przez nierozpuszczalną substancję organiczną oraz przez minerały ilaste (zaznaczone kolorem jasnożółtym). Produkcja gazu wymaga intensywnego szczelinowania górotworu, prowadzonego tak, aby wytworzyć jak najgęstszą sieć spękań, łączących jak największą liczbę porów skalnych Tightl Gas fracturing Shale Gas reservoir

14 Conventional reservoir
Tight Gas This is gas that is stuck in a very tight formation underground, trapped in unusually impermeable, hard rock, or in a sandstone or limestone formation that is unusually impermeable and non-porous (tight sand) For example it’s appr. 21% of the total recoverable US Natural Gas reserves Conventional reservoir Tight gas formation

15 Shale Gas Reservoir characterization
Low permeability reservoirs: md High organic content TOC > 1-6% wg. Shale is a source and sink for the gas Sorption of gas on organic matter in micro and nano pores „Free gas” in macropores and fractures In order to produce gas stimulation is needed, the most common method is hydraulic fracturing (slickwater) Injection of proppant in order to sustain fracture Low production rates ( – m3/well/day) but longer life of a well (up to 30 years) Horizontal wells provide higher recovery – 2 x more expensive

16 USA – the World leader in shale gas production
Commercial production so far only in US and Canada In US Unconventional Gas (i.e. CBM + Shale Gas) accounts for 42% of the total gas production, in 2020 it should grow up to 64%) In Canada Unconventional Gas accounts for 24% of the total gas production

17 Two technologies that contributed to the development of shale gas reservoirs in the world
Hydraulic fracturing Horizontal (directional) wellbores

18 Shale Gas Production principles

19 Fracturing of shale reservoirs
Source: STATOIL 19

20 Fracturing of shale reservoirs
Fracture Proppant 20

21 Fracturing requires precise logistic planning
Hydraulic Fracturing Operation Equipment 1. Well head and frac tree with ‘Goat Head’ 2. Flow line (for flowback & testing) 3. Sand separator for flowback 4. Flowback tanks 5. Line heaters 6. Flare stack 7. Pump trucks 8. Sand hogs 9. Sand trucks 10. Acid trucks 11. Frac additive trucks 12. Blender 13. Frac control and monitoring center 14. Fresh water impoundment 15. Fresh water supply pipeline 16. Extra tanks Production equipment 17. Line heaters 18. Separator-meter skid 19. Production manifold Fracturing requires precise logistic planning wg. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation; Division of Mineral Resources

22 Typical Marcellus Frac: 10 Stages, 4 MM lbs of sand, and 3 MM gal of water
pumped at >100bbls/min

23 Source: DOE, GWPC: Modern Gas Shale
Development In the United States: A Primer (2009)

24 Composition of fracturing fluid
Compound Purpose Common Application Acids Helps dissolve minerals and initiate fissure in rock (pre-fracture) Swimming pool cleaner Glutaraldehyde Eliminates bacteria in the water Disinfectant; Sterilizer for medical and dental equipment Sodium Chloride Allows a delayed break down of the gel polymer chains Table Salt N, n-Dimethyl formamide Prevents the corrosion of the pipe Used in pharmaceuticals, acrylic fibers and plastics Borate salts Maintains fluid viscosity as temperature increases Used in laundry detergents, hand soaps and cosmetics Polyacrylamide Minimizes friction between fluid and pipe Water treatment, soil conditioner Petroleum distillates "Slicks" the water to minimize friction Make-up remover, laxatives, and candy Guar gum Thickens the water to suspend the sand Thickener used in cosmetics, baked goods, ice cream, toothpaste, sauces, and salad dressing Citric Acid Prevents precipitation of metal oxides Food additive; food and beverages; lemon juice Potassium chloride Creates a brine carrier fluid Low sodium table salt substitute Ammonium bisulfite Removes oxygen from the water to protect the pipe from corrosion Cosmetics, food and beverage processing, water treatment Sodium or potassium carbonate Maintains the e#ectiveness of other components, such as crosslinkers Washing soda, detergents, soap, water softener, glass and ceramics Proppant Allows the fissures to remain open so the gas can escape Drinking water filtration, play sand Ethylene glycol Prevents scale deposits in the pipe Automotive antifreeze, household cleansers, deicing, and caulk Isopropanol Used to increase the viscosity of the fracture fluid Glass cleaner, antiperspirant, and hair color

25 Shale gas in poland Estimated reserves in bln (109) m3

in bln (109) m3

Shale gas exploration concessions - issued Shale gas exploration concessions - applied Conventional gas exploration concessions - issued Conventional gas exploration concessions - applied SOURCE: Ministry of Environment



30 Challenges and prospects
According to recent promises of the Minister of Environment shale gas production on commercial scale should start in 2014 Companies complain on formal obstacles EU Directives on shale gas?? There is a strong support of government regarding shale gas development – national research programme Blue Gas – 250 mln PLN ( ̴63 mln €)

31 Thank you for Your attention!!

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