1 Gas Giants Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, & Neptune CH 25.4 Outer PlanetsGas GiantsJupiter, Saturn, Uranus, & NeptuneLarge, “gaseous” planets with small solid cores of metal & rock.Made mostly of Hydrogen & Helium – under great pressures H & He existing as liquids w/in planet
2 Jupiter 5.2 AUs from sun Orbit time (Rev.) = 12 yrs Rotation = 9.8 hoursJupiterGASEOUS, LARGEST & MOST MASSIVE PLANET (mass = 318 x Earth)Atmosphere = Hydrogen, HeliumTemps = -144C (but hot core)Lg. Magnetosphere – currents of metallic liquid HydrogenFeatures:Cloud Bands, Giant Red Spot storm system, single faint ringmoons: 50+Exploration: Voyager & Galileo Spacecraft Flybys
3 Gallilean Moons Io - volcanic Ganymede – icy (Large) Callisto - icy Europa – icy (salt water ocean underneath)The History Channel’s “The Universe – Jupiter”
4 IoMost volcanically active location in the solar system.
5 Ganymede Callisto Europa Europa may have life under its salt water ocean under its frozen surface.
6 SaturnGASEOUS- 2nd Largest, Least dense (could float)Atmosphere: Hydrogen, Helium, +(Rains helium)Temps: -176C (hot core)Moons: 30+9.5 AUs from sunOrbit time (Rev) = 29.5 yrsRotation = hrsFeatures: Large ring system (icy rock/dust) Cloud bands
7 Titan: Saturn’s Moon Has an THICK ATMOSPHERE Nitrogen & Methane Liquid lakes of ethane & methane.Cassini-Huygen’s Mission recently explored Titan with a probeCassini continues to explore SaturnThe Universe: Saturn 1/3
8 Orbit Time (Rev): 84 years Uranus19.2 AUsOrbit Time (Rev): 84 yearsRotation: hrs.GASEOUS & RINGSAtmosphere: Hydrogen, Helium Methane, Ammonia Tilted on side 90 degrees and rotates backwards (retrograde)Temps: C (hot core)moon: 20+The History Chanel’s Outer Planets:
9 Neptune 30 AUs Orbit time (Rev) = 165 yrs. Rotation = 17.24 hrs. GASEOUS & RINGSAtmosphere: Methane, Hydrogen, AmmoniaTemps: FFeatures Dark Spot storm system (vanished 1994)Clouds of Methane Ice CrystalsMoons: 8+ (Triton is largest)Windiest Planet (1200 mph winds)
10 Common Features of Outer Planets Large in sizeGaseous surfaces of H & HeMany MoonsRingsCold temperaturesLong revolutions
11 Pluto Dwarf Planet Probably a Kuiper Belt Object 40 AUs Trace Atmosphere (methane)Temps C/ -400FSOLID – icy rock w/ frozen methaneDense Moon: Charon (almost same size; they chase each otherEccentric &Tilted Orbit (17 degrees)New Horizons Spacecraft – left in 2006; will arrive in 2015Discovery:
12 Reasons Pluto was Reclassified 1. Too small & solid(Outer planets are large & gaseous) 2. No rings 3. Only 1 moon (and it chases it). 4. Orbit is very elliptical & tilted 5. More in common with K.B.O.s
13 Kuiper BeltK.B.O.s Round icy rock bodies like Pluto continue to be found & classified.Starts at Neptune’s orbit and extends for 30 – 50 AU out.In the ecliptic plane w. planetsSednaShort term comets are also in K. Belt (~ 200 yr.orbits)
14 The Universe: The Outer Planets (& Pluto & KBO) The Universe: The Outer Planets (& Pluto & KBO)library.thinkquest.org
15 CometsFound in Kuiper Belt (region that Neptune’s orbit and extends past Pluto & is in the ECLIPITC PLANE) & Oort Cloud (SPHERE OF Comets surrounding S. system as a shell)Dirty Snowballs with a rocky coreVapor tail forms as it approaches sun (Solar wind evaporates frozen gases)Tail faces away from sunShort Range – 200 yrs (K.Belt)Long Range – millions or years (Oort Cloud)