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**Particle-in-Box (PIB) Models**

Chapter 3 Particle-in-Box (PIB) Models

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Carrots are Orange. Tomatoes are Red. But Why?

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**• The Classical Particle in a Box (PIB)**

Outline • The Classical Particle in a Box (PIB) • The Quantum Mechanical PIB • PIB Properties • Other PIB Models • The Free Electron Molecular Orbital (FEMO) Model • PIB and the Color of Vegetables • Multidimensional Systems: The 2D PIB and 3D PIB • Statistical Thermodynamics: Translational contributions to the thermodynamic properties of gases.

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**The Classical Particle in a Box**

P(x) a a P(x) = Const. = C £ x £ a P(x) = x < 0, x > a E = ½mv2 = p2/2m = any value, including 0 i.e. the energy is not quantized and there is no minimum.

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**Normalization <x> <x2> P(x) = Const. = C 0 £ x £ a**

P(x) = x < 0, x > a Normalization <x> <x2> Note:

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**• The Classical Particle in a Box (PIB)**

Outline • The Classical Particle in a Box (PIB) • The Quantum Mechanical PIB • PIB Properties • Other PIB Models • The Free Electron Molecular Orbital (FEMO) Model • PIB and the Color of Vegetables • Multidimensional Systems: The 2D PIB and 3D PIB • Statistical Thermodynamics: Translational contributions to the thermodynamic properties of gases.

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**Quantum Mechanical Particle-in-Box**

Schrödinger Equation x V(x) a Outside the box: x<0, x>a P(x) = *(x)(x) = 0 V(x) = x a (x) = 0 V(x) x < 0 , x > a Inside the box: 0 x a or

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**Solving the Equation Assume**

So far, there is no restriction on and, hence none on the energy, E (other than that it cannot be negative)

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**Applying Boundary Conditions (BC’s)**

Nature hates discontinuous behavior; i.e. It’s not really possible to stop on a dime Because the wavefunction, , is 0 outside the box, x<0 and x>a, it must also be 0 inside the box at x=0 and x=a BC-1: (0) = 0 = Asin(0) + Bcos(0) = B Therefore, (x) = Asin(x) BC-2: (a) = 0 = Asin(a) sin(n) = 0 On Board: Car travelling along Hickory to Carroll. Infinite deceleration. Therefore: a = n n = 1, 2, 3, ... or: n = 1, 2, 3, ... Why isn’t n = 0 acceptable?

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**Wavefunctions and Energy Levels**

Note that, unlike the classical particle in a box: (a) the allowed energies are quantized (b) E = 0 is NOT permissible (i.e. the particle can’t stand still)

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**Energy Quantization results from application**

of the Boundary Conditions

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Wavefunctions a 2 a

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**Note that: (a) The Probability, 2 is very different from the **

classical result. (b) The number of “nodes” increases with increasing quantum number. The increasing number of nodes reflects the higher kinetic energy with higher quantum number. Point out that KE = -hbar^2/2m d2psi/dx2. More nodes means higher curvature.

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**The Correspondence Principle**

The predictions of Quantum Mechanics cannot violate the results of classical mechanics on macroscopically sized systems. Consider an electron in a 1 Angstrom box. Calculate (a) the Zero Point Energy (i.e. minimum energy) (b) the minimum speed of the electron me = 9.1x10-31 kg a = 1x10-10 m h = 6.63x10-34 J-s Thus, the minimum speed of an electron confined to an atom is quite high.

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**Let's perform the same calculation on a macroscopic system.**

Consider a 1 gram particle in a 10 cm box. Calculate (a) the Zero Point Energy (i.e. minimum energy) (b) the minimum speed of the particle m = 1x10-3 kg a = 0.10 m h = 6.63x10-34 J-s Thus, the minimum energy and speed of a macroscopic particle are completely negligible.

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**Probability Distribution of a Macroscopic Particle**

Consider a 1 gram particle in a 10 cm box moving at 1 cm/s. Calculate the quantum number, n, which represents the number of maxima in the probability, 2. m = 1x10-3 kg a = 0.10 m v = 0.01 m/s h = 6.63x10-34 J-s Thus, the probability distribution is uniform throughout the box, as predicted by classical mechanics.

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**• The Classical Particle in a Box (PIB)**

Outline • The Classical Particle in a Box (PIB) • The Quantum Mechanical PIB • PIB Properties • Other PIB Models • The Free Electron Molecular Orbital (FEMO) Model • PIB and the Color of Vegetables • Multidimensional Systems: The 2D PIB and 3D PIB • Statistical Thermodynamics: Translational contributions to the thermodynamic properties of gases.

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Some Useful Integrals

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PIB Properties Normalization of the Wavefunctions 0 x a

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**Probability of finding the particle in a particular portion of the box**

Calculate the probability of finding a particle with n=1 in the region of the box between 0 and a/4 This is significantly lower than the classical probability, 0.25.

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**Orthogonality of the Wavefunctions**

Two wavefunctions are orthogonal if: We will show that the two lowest wavefunctions of the PIB are orthogonal: Thus, 1 and 2 are orthogonal

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**Using the same method as above, it can be shown that:**

Thus, the PIB wavefunctions are orthogonal. If they have also been normalized, then the wavefunctions are orthonormal: or

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**Positional Averages <x>**

We will calculate the averages for 1 and present the general result for n <x>

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General Case: This makes sense because 2 is symmetric about the center of the box.

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<x2 >

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**compared to the classical result**

General Case: Note that the general QM value reduces to the classical result in the limit of large n, as required by the Correspondence Principle.

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Momentum Averages Preliminary ^

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**<p> <p> = 0 (General case is the same)**

On reflection, this is not surprising. The particle has equal probabilities of moving in the + or - x-direction, and the momenta cancel each other.

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<p2> ^ ^ General Case:

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**Standard Deviations and the Uncertainty Principle**

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle:

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**• The Classical Particle in a Box (PIB)**

Outline • The Classical Particle in a Box (PIB) • The Quantum Mechanical PIB • PIB Properties • Other PIB Models • The Free Electron Molecular Orbital (FEMO) Model • PIB and the Color of Vegetables • Multidimensional Systems: The 2D PIB and 3D PIB • Statistical Thermodynamics: Translational contributions to the thermodynamic properties of gases.

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**Other PIB Models PIB with one non-infinite wall x Vo V(x) a**

a V(x) x < 0 V(x) = x a Region I I Region II II V(x) = Vo x > a We will first consider the case where E < V0. Boundary Conditions The wavefunction must satisfy two conditions at the boundaries (x=0, x=a, x) 1) must be continuous at all boundaries. 2) d/dx must be continuous at the boundaries unless V at the boundary.

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**x V(x) a V(x) = 0 0 x a V(x) x < 0 Vo V(x) = Vo x > a**

a V(x) = x a V(x) x < 0 Vo V(x) = Vo x > a We will first consider the case where E < V0. Region I I Region II II Region I can assume

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**x V(x) a V(x) = 0 0 x a V(x) x < 0 Vo V(x) = Vo x > a**

a V(x) = x a V(x) x < 0 Vo V(x) = Vo x > a We will first consider the case where E < V0. Region I I Region II II Region I Relation between and E

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**x V(x) a V(x) = 0 0 x a V(x) x < 0 Vo V(x) = Vo x > a**

a V(x) = x a V(x) x < 0 Vo V(x) = Vo x > a We will first consider the case where E < V0. Region I I Region II II Region II can assume

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**x V(x) a V(x) = 0 0 x a V(x) x < 0 Vo V(x) = Vo x > a**

a V(x) = x a V(x) x < 0 Vo V(x) = Vo x > a We will first consider the case where E < V0. Region I I Region II II Region II Relation between and E

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**x V(x) a V(x) = 0 0 x a V(x) x < 0 Vo V(x) = Vo x > a**

a V(x) = x a V(x) x < 0 Vo V(x) = Vo x > a We will first consider the case where E < V0. Region I I Region II II Boundary Conditions BC: x = 0 Therefore:

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**x V(x) a V(x) = 0 0 x a V(x) x < 0 Vo V(x) = Vo x > a**

a V(x) = x a V(x) x < 0 Vo V(x) = Vo x > a We will first consider the case where E < V0. Region I I Region II II Boundary Conditions BC: x = Therefore:

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**x V(x) a V(x) = 0 0 x a V(x) x < 0 Vo V(x) = Vo x > a**

a V(x) = x a V(x) x < 0 Vo V(x) = Vo x > a We will first consider the case where E < V0. Region I I Region II II Boundary Conditions BC’s: x = a or or

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**x V(x) a V(x) = 0 0 x a V(x) x < 0 Vo V(x) = Vo x > a**

a V(x) = x a V(x) x < 0 Vo V(x) = Vo x > a We will first consider the case where E < V0. Region I I Region II II Boundary Conditions BC’s: x = a These equations can be solved analytically to obtain the allowed values of the energy, E. However, it’s fairly messy. I’ll just show you some results obtained by numerical solution of the Schrödinger Equation.

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**This is an arbitrary value of V0**

x 2 x x 2 x x 2 x

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x x 2 What happened?? Why is the wavefunction so different? The condition for the earlier solution, E < V0, is no longer valid.

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**E > Vo V(x) x < 0 Vo V(x) = 0 0 x a Region I I**

V(x) = Vo x > a E > Vo a Region I Region II

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**PIB with central barrier: Tunneling**

Preliminary: Potential Energy Barriers in Classical Mechanics Bowling Ball m = 16 lb = 7.3 kg v = 30 mph = 13.4 m/s V0 = mgh = 1430 J h = 20 m KE = ½mv2 = 650 J Will the bowling ball make it over the hill? Of course not!! In classical mechanics, a particle cannot get to a position in which the potential energy is greater than the particle’s total energy.

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**x I II III x1 Vo x2 a V(x) V(x) x < 0 V(x) = 0 0 x x1**

x1 Vo x2 a x V(x) V(x) x < 0 V(x) = x x1 V(x) x > a V(x) = V0 x1 x x2 V(x) = x2 x a I II III I’ll just show the Boundary Conditions and graphs of the results. BC: x=0 BC’s: x=x1 BC’s: x=x2 BC: x=a

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x 2 x Note that there is a significant probability of finding the particle inside the barrier, even though V0 > E. This means that the particle can get from one side of the barrier to the other by tunneling through the barrier.

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**• Ammonia inversion (the ammonia clock) • Kinetic rate constants**

We have just demonstrated the quantum mechanical phenomenon called tunneling, in which a particle can be in a region of space where the potential energy is higher than the total energy of the particle. This is not simply an abstract phenomenon, but is known to occur in many areas of Chemistry and Physics, including: • Ammonia inversion (the ammonia clock) • Kinetic rate constants • Charge carriers in semiconductor devices • Nuclear radioactive decay • Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM)

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**• The Classical Particle in a Box (PIB)**

Outline • The Classical Particle in a Box (PIB) • The Quantum Mechanical PIB • PIB Properties • Other PIB Models • The Free Electron Molecular Orbital (FEMO) Model • PIB and the Color of Vegetables • Multidimensional Systems: The 2D PIB and 3D PIB • Statistical Thermodynamics: Translational contributions to the thermodynamic properties of gases.

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Carrots are Orange. Tomatoes are Red. But why??

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**Free Electron Molecular Orbital (FEMO) Model**

So, does the solution to the quantum mechanical “particle in a box” serve any role other than to torture P. Chem. students??? Yes!! To a good approximation, the electrons in conjugated polyalkenes are free to move within the confines of the orbital system. a Notes: Estimation of the box length, a, will be discussed later. Each carbon in this conjugated system contributes 1 electron. Thus, there are 6 electrons in the -system of 1,3,5-hexatriene (above)

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** Bonding in Ethylene Bonding () Orbital Anti-bonding (*) Orbital**

PIB (12) Maximum electron density between C’s Maximum electron density between C’s Anti-bonding (*) Orbital PIB (22) Electron density node between C’s Electron density node between C’s

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** * Transition in Ethylene using FEMO**

R = nm h = 6.63x10-34 J•s m = 9.11x10-31 kg ½R R a = 2R a = ??? = nm It is common (although not universal) to assume that the electrons are free to move approximately ½ bond length beyond each outermost carbon.

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**Calculation of max Units: = 7.9x10-8 m 80 nm (exp) = 190 nm**

The difficulty with applying FEMO to ethylene is that the result is extremely sensitive to the assumed box length, a.

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**Application of FEMO to 1,3-Butadiene**

R ½R It is common to use R = 0.14 nm (the C-C bond length in benzene,where the bond order is 1.5) as the average bond length in conjugated polyenes. L = 3•R + 2•(½R) = 4•R L = 4•0.14 nm = 0.56 nm

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Calculation of max = 2.07x10-7 m 207 nm (exp) = 217 nm

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**Application of FEMO to 1,3,5-Hexatriene**

a = 5•R + 2•(½R) = 6•R a = 6•0.14 nm = 0.84 nm E = 5.98x10-19 J (exp) = 258 nm = 332 nm Problem worked out in detail in Chapter 3 HW

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**The Box Length Hexatriene a = 5•R + 2•(½R) = 6•R**

General: a = nb•R + 2•(½R) =(nb+1)•R R = 1.40 Å = 0.14 nm

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**• The Classical Particle in a Box (PIB)**

Outline • The Classical Particle in a Box (PIB) • The Quantum Mechanical PIB • PIB Properties • Other PIB Models • The Free Electron Molecular Orbital (FEMO) Model • PIB and the Color of Vegetables • Multidimensional Systems: The 2D PIB and 3D PIB • Statistical Thermodynamics: Translational contributions to the thermodynamic properties of gases.

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**PIB and the Color of Vegetables**

Introduction The FEMO model predicts that the * absorption wavelength, , increases with the number of double bonds, #DB Compound #DB (FEMO) Ethylene nm Butadiene 2 207 Hexatriene 3 333 roughly N = # of electron pairs This is because: and:

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**Light Absorption and Color**

Blue Yellow Red (nm) 400 500 600 700 % Transmission If a substance absorbs light in the blue region of the visible spectrum, the color of the transmitted (or reflected) light will be red. Blue Yellow Red (nm) 400 500 600 700 % Transmission If a substance absorbs light in the red region of the visible spectrum, the color of the transmitted (or reflected) light will be blue.

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**Conjugated Systems and the Color of Substances**

White light contains all wavelengths of visible radiation ( = nm) If a substance absorbs certain wavelengths, then the remaining light is reflected, giving the appearance of the complementary color. e.g. a substance absorbing violet light appears to be yellow in color. No. of Conj. Molecule Doub. Bonds max Region Ethylene nm UV 1,3-Butadiene UV 1,3,5-Hexatriene UV -Carotene Vis. Lycopene Vis. Carrots Tomatoes

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**Structure of Ground State Butadiene**

R(C-C) = 1.53 Å 1.32 Å 1.47 Å Calculation: HF/6-31G(d) – 1 minute As well known, there is a degree of electron delocalization between the conjugated double bonds, giving some double bond character to the central bond.

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**Potential Energy Surface (PES) of Ground State Butadiene**

Calculation: HF/6-31G(d) – 37 optimizations – 25 minutes Minimum at ~40o

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**Energy Difference Between Trans and “Cis”-Butadiene**

E(cal) = Ecis – Etrans = 12.7 kJ/mol Experiment At room temperature (298 K), butadiene is a mixture with approximately 97% of the molecules in the trans conformation (and 3% “cis”). We could get very close to experiment by using a higher level of theory.

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**Structure of Excited State Butadiene**

1.32 Å 1.47 Å Ground State: S0 1.41 Å 1.39 Å Excited State: S1

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**Structure of Excited State Butadiene**

1.32 Å 1.47 Å Ground State: S0 1.41 Å 1.39 Å Excited State: S1 HOMO * Transition LUMO

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**Comparison of FEMO and QM Wavefunctions**

L LUMO HOMO

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**• The Classical Particle in a Box (PIB)**

Outline • The Classical Particle in a Box (PIB) • The Quantum Mechanical PIB • PIB Properties • Other PIB Models • The Free Electron Molecular Orbital (FEMO) Model • PIB and the Color of Vegetables • Multidimensional Systems: The 2D PIB and 3D PIB • Statistical Thermodynamics: Translational contributions to the thermodynamic properties of gases.

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**Multidimensional Systems: The 2D PIB**

The 2D Hamiltonian: The 2D Schr. Eqn.: The Potential Energy a b x y V(x,y) = x a and 0 y b V(x,y) x < 0 or x > a or y < 0 or y > b Outside of the box i.e. x < 0 or x > a or y < 0 or y > b (x,y) = 0

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**Solution: Separation of Variables**

The 2D Schr. Eqn.: Inside the box: V(x,y) = x a and 0 y b Note: On following slides, I will show how this two dimensional differential equation can be solved by the method of Separation of Variables. You are NOT responsible for the details of the soution, but only the assumptions and results.

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**Solution: Separation of Variables**

Inside the box: Hx Hy Assume:

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**Solution: Separation of Variables**

Inside the box: f(x) g(y) C If: f(x) + g(y) = C then: f(x) = C1 and g(y) = C2 C1 + C2 = C = Ex Ey E = Ex + Ey

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= Ex Ey Range 0 x a Range 0 y b E = Ex + Ey

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**Two Dimensional PIB: Summary**

Inside the box: Assume: Range 0 y b Range 0 x a E = Ex + Ey

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**The Wavefunctions 2 2 2 Range 0 x a 0 y b nx = 1, 2, 3,...**

ny = 1, 2, 3,... nx = 1 ny = 1 2 nx = 2 ny = 1 2 nx = 2 ny = 2 2

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**The Energies: Wavefunction Degeneracy**

nx = 1, 2, 3,... ny = 1, 2, 3,... Square Box nx ny a = b 13 2 3 3 2 g = 2 10 1 3 3 1 g = 2 8 2 2 g = 1 5 g = 2 1 2 2 1 2 g = 1 1 1

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**Application: * Absorption in Benzene**

1 1 nx ny 2 5 8 10 13 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 3 3 1 2 3 3 2 E [h2/8ma2] nx ny 1 1 2 5 8 10 13 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 3 3 1 2 3 3 2 E [h2/8ma2] The six electrons in benzene can be approximated as particles in a square box. One can estimate the wavelength of the lowest energy * from the 2D-PIB model (See HW problem)

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**Three Dimensional PIB V(x,y,z) = 0 0 x a 0 y b 0 z c a b c**

Outside the box

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Assume:

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nx = 1, 2, 3, ... ny = 1, 2, 3, ... nz = 1, 2, 3, ... Cubical Box Note: You should be able to determine the energy levels and degeneracies for a cubical box and for various ratios of a:b:c a = b = c

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**• The Classical Particle in a Box (PIB)**

Outline • The Classical Particle in a Box (PIB) • The Quantum Mechanical PIB • PIB Properties • Other PIB Models • The Free Electron Molecular Orbital (FEMO) Model • PIB and the Color of Vegetables • Multidimensional Systems: The 2D PIB and 3D PIB • Statistical Thermodynamics: Translational contributions to the thermodynamic properties of gases.

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**Introduction to Statistical Thermodynamics**

Statistical Thermodynamics is the application of Statistical Mechanics to predict thermodynamic properties of molecules. But this is a Quantum Mechanics course. Why discuss thermodynamics?? 1. The Statistical Thermodynamic formulas used to predict the properties come from the Quantum Mechanical energies for systems such as the PIB, Rigid Rotor (Chap. 4) and Harmonic Oscillator (Chap. 5). 2. Various properties of the molecules, including moments of inertia, vibrational frequencies, and electronic energy levels are required to calculate the thermodynamic properties Often, these properties are not available experimentally, and must be obtained from QM calculations.

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**Some Applications of QM/Stat. Thermo.**

Molecular Heat Capacities [CV(T) and CP(T)] Molecular Enthalpies of Formation [Hf] Bond Dissociation Enthalpies [aka Bond Strengths] Reaction Enthalpy Changes [Hrxn] Reaction Entropy Changes [Srxn] Reaction Gibbs Energy Changes [Grxn] and Equilibrium Constants [Keq] Kinetics: Activation Enthalpies [H‡] and Entropies [S‡] Kinetics: Rate Constants

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**Output from G-98 geom. opt. and frequency calculation on O2 (at 298 K)**

QCISD/6-311G(d) Frequencies - Thermochemistry - Temperature Kelvin. Pressure Atm. Thermochemistry will use frequencies scaled by Atom 1 has atomic number 8 and mass Atom 2 has atomic number 8 and mass Molecular mass: amu. Principal axes and moments of inertia in atomic units: EIGENVALUES X Y Z THIS MOLECULE IS A PROLATE SYMMETRIC TOP. ROTATIONAL SYMMETRY NUMBER 2. ROTATIONAL TEMPERATURE (KELVIN) ROTATIONAL CONSTANT (GHZ) Zero-point vibrational energy (Joules/Mol) (Kcal/Mol) VIBRATIONAL TEMPERATURES: (KELVIN) Zero-point correction= (Hartree/Particle) Thermal correction to Energy= Thermal correction to Enthalpy= Thermal correction to Gibbs Free Energy= Sum of electronic and zero-point Energies= Sum of electronic and thermal Energies= Sum of electronic and thermal Enthalpies= Sum of electronic and thermal Free Energies= E (Thermal) CV S KCAL/MOL CAL/MOL-K CAL/MOL-K TOTAL ELECTRONIC TRANSLATIONAL ROTATIONAL VIBRATIONAL Q LOG10(Q) LN(Q) TOTAL BOT D TOTAL V= D VIB (BOT) D VIB (V=0) D ELECTRONIC D TRANSLATIONAL D ROTATIONAL D

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**Mini-Outline for Stat. Thermo. Development**

The Boltzmann Distribution The Partition Function (Q) Thermodynamic properties in terms of Q Partition function for non-interacting molecules The molecular partition function (q) The total partition function for a system of molecules (Q) The translational partition function Translational contributions to thermodynamic properties

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**The Boltzmann Distribution**

Normalization Boltzmann Distribution Therefore:

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**The Partition Function**

where Q is called the "Partition Function". Thermodynamic properties, including, U, Cv, H, S, A, G, can be calculated from Q. Alternative Form One can sum over energy "levels" rather than individual energy states. where gj is the degeneracy of the j’th energy level, Ej

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**Thermodynamic Properties from Q: Internal Energy (U)**

Derivative at constant V,N because energy depends on volume and No. of Molecules NOTE: On an exam, you will be provided with any required SM formula for a thermodynamic property (e.g. the above expression for U)

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**Thermodynamic Properties from Q: Other Properties**

Constant Volume Heat Capacity: The math involved in relating other thermodynamic properties to Q is a bit more involved. It can be found in standard P. Chem. texts; e.g. Physical Chemistry, by R. A. Alberty and R. J. Silbey, Chap. 17 I'll just give the results. Pressure: Entropy:

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**Thermodynamic Properties from Q: Other Properties**

Enthalpy: Note: If Q f(V), then H = U Constant Pressure Heat Capacity: Helmholtz Energy: Gibbs Energy: Note: If Q f(V), then G = A NOTE: On an exam, you will be provided with any required SM formula for a thermodynamic property.

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**Partition Function for Non-interacting Molecules (aka IDG)**

Case A: Distinguishable Molecules The microstate of molecule 'a' is given by j, of molecule 'b' by k… a, b, c, ... designates the molecule i, j, k, ... designates the molecule's set of energies (e.g. trans., rot., vib., ...) If the molecules are the same, Therefore, for N molecules we have:

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**Partition Function for Non-interacting Molecules (aka IDG)**

Case B: Indistinguishable Molecules Distinguishable Molecules: In actuality, one cannot distinguish between different molecules in a gas. Let's say that there is one state in which the quantum numbers for molecule 'a' are m1,n1… and for molecule 'b' are m2,n2… This state is the same as one in which the quantum numbers for molecule 'a' are m2,n2… and for molecule 'b' are m1,n1… However, the two sets of quantum numbers above would give two terms in the above equation for Q. i.e. we've overcounted the number of terms. It can be shown that the overcounting can be eliminated by dividing Q by N! (the number of ways of permuting N particles). Therefore, Indistinguishable Molecules:

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**The Molecular Partition Function (q)**

To a good approximation, the Hamiltonian for a molecule can be written as the sum of translational, rotational, vibrational and electronic Hamiltonians: Therefore, the molecule's total energy (i) is the sum of individual energies: The partition function is:

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**The Total Partition Function (Q)**

It can be shown that the term, 1/N! belongs to Qtran

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**Thermodynamic Properties of Molecules**

The expressions for the thermodynamic properties all involve lnQ; e.g. where Similarly etc.

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**The Translational Partition Function for an Ideal Gas**

Consider that the molecules of a gas are confined in a cubical box of length 'a' on each side.* *One gets the same result if the box is not assumed to be cubical, with a bit more algebra. The energy levels are given by: The molecular translational partition function is:

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**One can show that the summand (term in summation) is an extremely **

slowly varying function of n. For example, for O2 [M = 32x10-3 kg/mol] in a 10 cm (0.1 m) box at 298 K: The extremely slowly changing exponent results from the fact that: is the change in energy between successive quantum levels. n Δ[Expon] 8x10-20 x10-14 x10-8 This leads to an important simplification in the expression for qtran.

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**Relation between sum and integral for slowly varying functions**

If f(ni) is a slowly varying function of ni, then one may replace the sum by the integral: ni f(ni)

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**V is the volume of the box**

Note: The translation partition function is the only one which depends upon the system’s volume.

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**This is the translational partitition function for a single molecule.**

A note on the calculation of V (in SI Units) One is normally given the temperature and pressure, from which one can calculate V from the IDG law. R = 8.31 J/mol-K = 8.31 Pa-m3/mol-K One should use the pressure in Pa [1 atm. = 1.013x105 Pa], in which case V is given in m3 [SI Units]

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**Calculate qtran for one mole of O2 at 298 K and 1 atm.**

NA = 6.02x1023 mol-1 h = 6.63x10-34 J-s k = 1.38x10-23 J/K R = 8.31 Pa-m3/mol-K M = 32 g/mol 1 J = 1 kg-m2/s2 1 atm. = 1.013x105 Pa

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**Their output is actually qtran / NA**

Units: - Thermochemistry - Temperature Kelvin. Pressure Atm. Q LOG10(Q) LN(Q) TOTAL BOT D TOTAL V= D VIB (BOT) D VIB (V=0) D ELECTRONIC D TRANSLATIONAL D ROTATIONAL D G-98 Output Their output is actually qtran / NA

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**This is the translational partitition function for a single molecule.**

Partition Function for a system with N (=nNA) molecules Stirling’s Approximation

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**Calculate ln(Qtran) for one mole of**

O2 at 298 K and 1 atm. qtran = 4.28x1030 This is an extremely large number. However, as we’ll see shortly, ln(Q) is multiplied by the very small number (k) in the thermodynamics formulas.

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**Translational Contributions to the Thermodynamic Properties of Ideal Gases**

Preliminary

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**The Ideal Gas Equation (because R = kNA)**

Notes: (1) Because none of the other partition functions (rotational, vibrational, or electronic) depend on V, they do not contribute to the pressure. We end up with the IDG equation because we assumed that the molecules don’t interact when we assumed that the total energy is the sum of individual molecules’ energies.

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**Internal Energy or Molar Internal Energy**

This demonstrates the Principle of Equipartition of Translational Internal Energy (1/2RT per translation) It arose from the assumption that the change in the exponent is very small and the sum can be replaced by an integral. This is always true for translational motions of gases.

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**Enthalpy or Molar Enthalpy**

Note: As noted earlier, if Q is independent of V, then H = U. This is the case for all partition functions except Qtran

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**Heat Capacities Experimental Heat Capacities at 298.15 K**

Compd. CP (exp) Ar J/mol-K O SO

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**Output from G-98 geom. opt. and frequency calculation on O2 (at 298 K)**

QCISD/6-311G(d) E (Thermal) CV S KCAL/MOL CAL/MOL-K CAL/MOL-K TOTAL ELECTRONIC TRANSLATIONAL ROTATIONAL VIBRATIONAL Q LOG10(Q) LN(Q) TOTAL BOT D TOTAL V= D VIB (BOT) D VIB (V=0) D ELECTRONIC D TRANSLATIONAL D ROTATIONAL D Utran(mol) = 3/2RT = 3.72 kJ/mol = kcal/mol CVtran(mol) = 3/2R = J/mol-K = 2.98 cal/mol-K

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Entropy Earlier, we showed that for one mole of O2 at 298 K and 1 atm., ln(Qtran) = 1.01x1025 mol-1 O2: Smol(exp) = J/mol-K at K

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**Output from G-98 geom. opt. and frequency calculation on O2 (at 298 K)**

E (Thermal) CV S KCAL/MOL CAL/MOL-K CAL/MOL-K TOTAL ELECTRONIC TRANSLATIONAL ROTATIONAL VIBRATIONAL Q LOG10(Q) LN(Q) TOTAL BOT D TOTAL V= D VIB (BOT) D VIB (V=0) D ELECTRONIC D TRANSLATIONAL D ROTATIONAL D Output from G-98 geom. opt. and frequency calculation on O2 (at 298 K) QCISD/6-311G(d) G-98: Smoltran = cal/mol-K = J/mol-K Our Calculation (above): Smoltran = J/mol-K Difference is round-off error and less Sig. Figs. in our calculation.

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**Helmholtz Energy Gibbs Energy For O2 at 298 K (one mol):**

ln(Qtran) = 1.01x1025 mol-1 For O2 at 298 K (one mol): Gibbs Energy For O2 at 298 K (one mol): Note: As noted before, if Q is independent of V, then G = A. This is the case for all partition functions except Qtran

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**Output from G-98 geom. opt. and frequency calculation on O2 (at 298 K)**

QCISD/6-311G(d) Frequencies - Thermochemistry - Temperature Kelvin. Pressure Atm. Thermochemistry will use frequencies scaled by Atom 1 has atomic number 8 and mass Atom 2 has atomic number 8 and mass Molecular mass: amu. Principal axes and moments of inertia in atomic units: EIGENVALUES X Y Z THIS MOLECULE IS A PROLATE SYMMETRIC TOP. ROTATIONAL SYMMETRY NUMBER 2. ROTATIONAL TEMPERATURE (KELVIN) ROTATIONAL CONSTANT (GHZ) Zero-point vibrational energy (Joules/Mol) (Kcal/Mol) VIBRATIONAL TEMPERATURES: (KELVIN) Zero-point correction= (Hartree/Particle) Thermal correction to Energy= Thermal correction to Enthalpy= Thermal correction to Gibbs Free Energy= Sum of electronic and zero-point Energies= Sum of electronic and thermal Energies= Sum of electronic and thermal Enthalpies= Sum of electronic and thermal Free Energies= These are thermal contributions to U, H and G. They represent the sum of the translational, rotational, vibrational and (in some cases) electronic contributions. They are given in atomic units (au). 1 au = kJ/mol

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**Translational Contributions to O2 Entropy**

Obviously, there are significant additional contributions (future chapters)

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**Translational Contributions to O2 Enthalpy**

Obviously, there are significant additional contributions (future chapters)

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**Translational Contributions to O2 Heat Capacity**

Obviously, there are significant additional contributions (future chapters)

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Static Equilibrium; Elasticity and Fracture

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