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The Outer Planets The Gas Giants (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune)Pluto and Beyond.

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Presentation on theme: "The Outer Planets The Gas Giants (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune)Pluto and Beyond."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Outer Planets The Gas Giants (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune)Pluto and Beyond

2 The Gas Giants Located outside the asteroid belt Located outside the asteroid belt Much larger and more massive than terrestrial planets Much larger and more massive than terrestrial planets Much less dense than terrestrial planets Much less dense than terrestrial planets Large size gives them huge amounts of gravity to retain gasses Large size gives them huge amounts of gravity to retain gasses Even though the thick atmospheres of hydrogen and helium make it difficult for scientists to directly view the surface of the gas giants, they believe each planet probably has a core made of rock and metals Even though the thick atmospheres of hydrogen and helium make it difficult for scientists to directly view the surface of the gas giants, they believe each planet probably has a core made of rock and metals All four gas giants have a ring system made of dust and icy debris All four gas giants have a ring system made of dust and icy debris

3 Jupiter Location: 5 th planet from the sun Location: 5 th planet from the sun Rotation: 9 hours 50 minutes Rotation: 9 hours 50 minutes Revolution: 12 years Revolution: 12 years Temperature: -160°C (outer atmospheric layers) Temperature: -160°C (outer atmospheric layers) as high as 30,000 °C in core Its mass is more than 300 times that of Earth and is twice that of the other eight planets combined. Its mass is more than 300 times that of Earth and is twice that of the other eight planets combined. Jupiter has 60 moons, 4 of which are large and several thin rings. Jupiter has 60 moons, 4 of which are large and several thin rings. Gravity: 2.54 times that of Earth Gravity: 2.54 times that of Earth Diameter: 11 times Earths Diameter: 11 times Earths Density: 24% of Earths Density: 24% of Earths

4 Jupiters Atmosphere Jupiters atmosphere is much like the suns; 92% hydrogen and helium, however when it formed, it did not have enough mass for nuclear fusion to begin and never became a star. The bands of color on Jupiters surface are most likely organic molecules mixed with ammonia, methane and water vapor. Jupiters rapid rotation causes the gasses to separate into bands

5 Weather and Storms on Jupiter Jupiters Great Red Spot is a Jupiters Great Red Spot is a giant rotating storm similar giant rotating storm similar to a hurricane. to a hurricane. This storm has been raging for several hundred years. This storm has been raging for several hundred years. The Galileo space probe measured wind speeds of up to 540 km/hr. The Galileo space probe measured wind speeds of up to 540 km/hr. Many storms occurring at once on Jupiter at all times, some small, and scientists believe the planets internal heat has a greater impact on the weather than the suns energy does. Many storms occurring at once on Jupiter at all times, some small, and scientists believe the planets internal heat has a greater impact on the weather than the suns energy does.

6 Saturn Location: 6 th planet from the sun Location: 6 th planet from the sun Rotation: 10 hours 30 minutes Rotation: 10 hours 30 minutes Revolution 29.5 years Revolution 29.5 years Temperature: -176°C due to distance from sun Temperature: -176°C due to distance from sun Saturn is the least dense of all planets Saturn is the least dense of all planets Saturn has at least 30 moons Saturn has at least 30 moons Titan is the largest moon; it is half the size of Earth Titan is the largest moon; it is half the size of Earth Gravity: 1.07 times that of Earths Gravity: 1.07 times that of Earths Diameter: 9.4 times Earths Diameter: 9.4 times Earths Density: 13% of Earths Density: 13% of Earths Saturns atmosphere is almost entirely Hydrogen and Helium Saturns atmosphere is almost entirely Hydrogen and Helium

7 Saturns Bands and Rings Saturns rings are 2 times its diameter. Saturns rings are 2 times its diameter. The rings are made of billions The rings are made of billions of dust and ice particles from of dust and ice particles from comets or other bodies. comets or other bodies. The space probe Cassini was what scientists used to learn what scientists used to learn about Saturn and its large moon Titan about Saturn and its large moon Titan

8 Uranus Location: 7 th planet from the sun Location: 7 th planet from the sun Rotation: 17 hours Rotation: 17 hours Revolution: 84 years Revolution: 84 years Temperature: Temperature: cloud top temp:-214°C center of core: 7,000°C Uranus has 24 moons Uranus has 24 moons It also has 11 rings It also has 11 rings Uranus is the 3 rd largest planet Uranus is the 3 rd largest planet Gravity: 91% of Earths Gravity: 91% of Earths Diameter: 4 times that of Earths Diameter: 4 times that of Earths Density: 24% of Earths Density: 24% of Earths Atmosphere mainly H and He Atmosphere mainly H and He

9 Uranuss Rotation Most planets rotate with their axis perpendicular to their orbital planes as they revolve around the sun. Most planets rotate with their axis perpendicular to their orbital planes as they revolve around the sun. Uranuss axis is almost parallel to the plane of orbit Uranuss axis is almost parallel to the plane of orbit Voyager 2 is the probe that made the discoveries about Uranus. Voyager 2 is the probe that made the discoveries about Uranus.

10 Neptune Location: 8th planet from the sun Rotation: 16 hours Revolution: 164 years Temperature: average cloud top -225°C Moons: at least 8 Rings: possibly 4 Gravity: 1.2 times that of Earths Diameter: 3.9 times that of Earths Density: 30% of Earths Images from Voyager 2 and the Hubble Space Telescope have helped scientists understand Neptune.

11 Neptunes Atmosphere Made mostly of hydrogen, helium and methane. Made mostly of hydrogen, helium and methane. The white clouds are frozen methane The white clouds are frozen methane Strong winds exceed 1,000 km/hr Strong winds exceed 1,000 km/hr The Great Dark Spot: a storm the size of Earth appeared and disappeared on Neptunes surface.

12 Pluto demoted Summer 2006, about 2,500 scientists met in Prague, Czechoslovakia to re-define what qualifies a celestial body as a planet. They came up with these: Summer 2006, about 2,500 scientists met in Prague, Czechoslovakia to re-define what qualifies a celestial body as a planet. They came up with these: 1. It must be in orbit around the Sun. 2. It must be large enough that it takes on a nearly round shape. nearly round shape. 3. It has cleared its orbit of other objects.

13 More on Pluto Pluto was automatically disqualified because its highly elliptical orbit overlaps with that of Neptune. Pluto was automatically disqualified because its highly elliptical orbit overlaps with that of Neptune. Another critical blow for Pluto was the discovery three years ago of the object designated 2003 UB313 or also called Eris, because it is 3,000 km (1,864 miles) in diameter which is bigger than Pluto. Another critical blow for Pluto was the discovery three years ago of the object designated 2003 UB313 or also called Eris, because it is 3,000 km (1,864 miles) in diameter which is bigger than Pluto. Both Pluto and Eris will be called Dwarf Planets along with the biggest asteroid in the Solar System, Ceres which is found in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter Both Pluto and Eris will be called Dwarf Planets along with the biggest asteroid in the Solar System, Ceres which is found in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter

14 Plutos Statistics Location: Beyond Neptune, near the Kuiper Belt Location: Beyond Neptune, near the Kuiper Belt Rotation: 6.4 days Rotation: 6.4 days Revolution: 248 years Revolution: 248 years Temperature: -235°C Temperature: -235°C Gravity: 1% of Earths Gravity: 1% of Earths Diameter: 20% of Earths Diameter: 20% of Earths Density: 32% of Earths Density: 32% of Earths Moon: Charon (1/2 Plutos size) Moon: Charon (1/2 Plutos size) Pluto and its moon Charon Pluto and its moon Charon

15 Kuiper Belt and Sedna Kuiper Belt - A region of the solar system that is just beyond the orbit of Neptune and contains small bodies made mostly of ice. Kuiper Belt - A region of the solar system that is just beyond the orbit of Neptune and contains small bodies made mostly of ice. Sedna – a celestial body ¾ the size of Pluto and orbits 3 times farther than Pluto. Located beyond the Kuiper Belt Sedna – a celestial body ¾ the size of Pluto and orbits 3 times farther than Pluto. Located beyond the Kuiper Belt

16 Exoplanets Planets that orbit other stars than our Sun Planets that orbit other stars than our Sun Over 100 discovered Over 100 discovered Found due the gravitational effect they have on the stars they orbit. Found due the gravitational effect they have on the stars they orbit. All exoplanets that have been identified are larger than Uranus All exoplanets that have been identified are larger than Uranus

17 The New Solar System


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