Presentation on theme: "The Gas Giants (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) Pluto and Beyond"— Presentation transcript:
1The Gas Giants (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) Pluto and Beyond The Outer PlanetsThe Gas Giants(Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune)Plutoand Beyond
2The Gas Giants Located outside the asteroid belt Much larger and more massive than terrestrial planetsMuch less dense than terrestrial planetsLarge size gives them huge amounts of gravity to retain gassesEven though the thick atmospheres of hydrogen and helium make it difficult for scientists to directly view the surface of the gas giants, they believe each planet probably has a core made of rock and metalsAll four gas giants have a ring system made of dust and icy debris
3Jupiter Location: 5th planet from the sun Rotation: 9 hours 50 minutes Revolution: 12 yearsTemperature: -160°C (outer atmospheric layers)as high as 30,000 °C in coreIts mass is more than 300 times that of Earth and is twice that of the other eight planets combined.Jupiter has 60 moons, 4 of which are large and several thin rings.Gravity: 2.54 times that of EarthDiameter: 11 times EarthsDensity: 24% of Earths
4Jupiter’s AtmosphereJupiter’s atmosphere is much like the suns; 92% hydrogen and helium, however when it formed, it did not have enough mass for nuclear fusion to begin and never became a star.The bands of color on Jupiter’s surface are most likely organic molecules mixed with ammonia, methane and water vapor.Jupiter’s rapid rotation causes the gasses to separate into bands
5Weather and Storms on Jupiter Jupiter’s Great Red Spot is agiant rotating storm similarto a hurricane.This storm has been raging for several hundred years.The Galileo space probe measured wind speeds of up to 540 km/hr.Many storms occurring at once on Jupiter at all times, some small, and scientists believe the planets internal heat has a greater impact on the weather than the suns energy does.
6Saturn Location: 6th planet from the sun Rotation: 10 hours 30 minutes Revolution 29.5 yearsTemperature: -176°C due to distance from sunSaturn is the least dense of all planetsSaturn has at least 30 moonsTitan is the largest moon; it is half the size of EarthGravity: 1.07 times that of Earth’sDiameter: 9.4 times Earth’sDensity: 13% of Earth’sSaturn’s atmosphere is almost entirely Hydrogen and Helium
7Saturn’s Bands and Rings Saturn’s rings are 2 times its diameter.The rings are made of billionsof dust and ice particles fromcomets or other bodies.The space probe Cassini waswhat scientists used to learnabout Saturn and its large moon Titan
8Uranus Location: 7th planet from the sun Rotation: 17 hours Revolution: 84 yearsTemperature:cloud top temp:-214°Ccenter of core: 7,000°CUranus has 24 moonsIt also has 11 ringsUranus is the 3rd largest planetGravity: 91% of Earth’sDiameter: 4 times that of Earth’sDensity: 24% of Earth’sAtmosphere mainly H and He
9Uranus’s RotationMost planets rotate with their axis perpendicular to their orbital planes as they revolve around the sun.Uranus’s axis is almost parallel to the plane of orbitVoyager 2 is the probe that made the discoveries about Uranus.
10Neptune Location: 8th planet from the sun Rotation: 16 hours Revolution: 164 yearsTemperature: average cloud top -225°CMoons: at least 8Rings: possibly 4Gravity: 1.2 times that of Earth’sDiameter: 3.9 times that of Earth’sDensity: 30% of Earth’sImages from Voyager 2 and the Hubble Space Telescope have helped scientists understand Neptune.
11Neptune’s Atmosphere Made mostly of hydrogen, helium and methane. The white clouds are frozen methaneStrong winds exceed 1,000 km/hrThe Great Dark Spot: a storm the size of Earth appeared and disappeared on Neptune’s surface.
12Pluto demotedSummer 2006, about 2,500 scientists met in Prague, Czechoslovakia to re-define what qualifies a celestial body as a planet. They came up with these:1. It must be in orbit around the Sun.2. It must be large enough that it takes on anearly round shape.3. It has cleared its orbit of other objects.
13More on PlutoPluto was automatically disqualified because its highly elliptical orbit overlaps with that of Neptune.Another critical blow for Pluto was the discovery three years ago of the object designated 2003 UB313 or also called Eris, because it is 3,000 km (1,864 miles) in diameter which is bigger than Pluto.Both Pluto and Eris will be called Dwarf Planets along with the biggest asteroid in the Solar System, Ceres which is found in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter
14Pluto’s Statistics Pluto and it’s moon Charon Location: Beyond Neptune, near the Kuiper BeltRotation: 6.4 daysRevolution: 248 yearsTemperature: -235°CGravity: 1% of Earth’sDiameter: 20% of Earth’sDensity: 32% of Earth’sMoon: Charon (1/2 Pluto’s size)Pluto and it’s moon Charon
15Kuiper Belt and SednaKuiper Belt - A region of the solar system that is just beyond the orbit of Neptune and contains small bodies made mostly of ice.Sedna – a celestial body ¾ the size of Pluto and orbits 3 times farther than Pluto. Located beyond the Kuiper Belt
16Exoplanets Planets that orbit other stars than our Sun Over 100 discoveredFound due the gravitational effect they have on the stars they orbit.All exoplanets that have been identified are larger than Uranus