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1 CLEAN AIR FOR LAGOS STATE Presentation by ENVIRONMENTAL LAW RESEARCH INSTITUTE (ELRI) AND GAMMA GAS DETECTION & MONITORING LIMITED (GAMMA GAS) TO SELECT MINISTRIES AND REGULATORY AGENCIES OF THE LAGOS STATE GOVERNMENT On Thursday 20 th January, 2011 at Motorways House, Ikeja, Lagos Professor Olanrewaju.A. Fagbohun, Ph.D Mr. Chukwukere Onyirioba, Ed Operations (2011) 1

2 About ELRI – GAMMA GAS – ELRI and GAMMA GAS are associated entities and both are registered under the laws of the Federal Republic of Nigeria; – ELRI is the educational, research and training arm while GAMMA GAS is the investment and business arm. 2

3 Air Pollution Definition The introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment, into the atmosphere. … a gas (or a liquid or solid dispersed through ordinary air) released in a big enough quantity to harm the health of people or other animals, kill plants or stop them growing properly, damage or disrupt some other aspect of the environment (such as making building crumble or cause other kind of nuisance (reduced visibility … or an unpleasant odor). 3

4 Classification of Pollutants – Primary Pollutants, are directly emitted from a process, such as ash from a volcanic eruption, the carbon monoxide from a motor vehicle, or sulfur dioxide released from factories; – Secondary Pollutants, are not emitted directly, They form in the air when primary pollutants react or interact e.g. ground level ozone. – Some pollutants may be both. 4

5 Forms of Pollutants (Dust and gas) – Gases produced from combustion processes (carbon monoxide-CO; carbon dioxide-CO 2 ; and oxides of nitrogen). Sources: power stations, heating plants, industrial processes, and transportation; – Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) – released into the atmosphere as a result of burning fossil fuels containing sulphur. Sources: coal fired power stations and other industrial sources; – Particulates of lead and other heavy metals arise from various activities, including combustion processes in motor vehicles, metal processing industries, and waste incineration; – Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) Sources: vehicle exhaust gases (either as unburned fuels or as combustion products), evaporation of solvents and motor fuels; 5

6 – Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Sources: used in aerosol sprays, solvents, and as refrigerants in fridges, freezers and air-conditioning units; – Methane. Sources: emitted during the production and transportation of coal, natural gas oil, decomposition of organic wastes in landfills, and from herds and cattle; – PM 10 – small airborne particulate matter, the particles of which are <10 ץ m. Sources: emission from diesel engines; – Various complex pollutants produced by the incomplete combustion of fuels – carcinogenic or highly toxic pollutants at small levels; dioxins, furans, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polycholrinated biphenyls (PCBs) 6

7 Classification of Sources of Air pollution – Anthropogenic sources (human activity) Stationery sources, e.g. power plants, manufacturing facilities, waste incinerators; Mobile sources, motor vehicles, marine vessels, aircraft; Chemicals, dust and controlled burn practices in agriculture and forestry management; Fumes, from paint, hair spray, varnish, aerosol and other solvent; Waste deposition in landfills; Military, e.g. nuclear weapons, toxic gases, germ warfare; 7

8 – Natural sources Dust from natural sources (desert area); Smoke and carbon monoxide from wildfire; Volcanic activity; Methane (emitted by the digestion of food by animals); Vegetation (in some regions, emits environmentally significant amount of VOCs on warmer days); Radon gas from radioactive decay within the Earths crust. 8

9 Effects of Air and Atmospheric Pollutants – Climate change, largely linked to emission of six greenhouse gases, namely, nitrous oxides, carbon dioxide, PFCs, methane, CFCs and ground-level ozone (extreme weather events and changes in seasons); – Acid rain, arises when sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides mix with water vapour to form very weak sulphuric acid and nitric acid solutions in rainfall (linked to killing of fish, birds and trees and cause damage to buildings). – Health effects, principally affects the respiratory and cardiovascular system; Consequences of Impact on Health Difficulty in breathing, wheezing, coughing, aggravation of existing respiratory and cardiac conditions, pulmonary exacerbations, vascular dysfunction, increased thrombus formation, brain damage, cancer, and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. 9

10 WHO estimates that 2.4 million people die annually from causes directly attributable to air pollution; Epidemiological studies suggest that more than 500,000 Americans (310,000 Europeans) die annually from cardiopulmonary diseases linked to breathing fine particle air pollution; Empirical evidence has shown a strong correlation between pneumonia related deaths and air pollution from motor vehicles; Worldwide, more threats are linked to air pollution than automobile accidents; 10

11 Objectives of Air Quality Management – Air quality management policies and strategies should be set to maximize net benefits to society, consistent with maintaining a reasonable degree of fairness; – Ongoing systematic efforts to reduce exposures should be taken until further reductions are not justifiable and efficient for cost-benefit reasons and societal support. Hot spots and geographical differences in air quality need to be identified and taken into account in exposure reduction strategies. Decision – Making Principles – In location where air quality is poor and studies to characterize sources and impacts are in their infancy, uncertainties in the science should not delay the implementation of strategies to improve air quality; – All policy (emission fees, emissions trading, voluntary programs, mandatory standard, etc) should be considered, including technological approaches and non-technological community-based behavioral solutions. There is also a need for a database of policy intervention case studies, including successes and failures. 11

12 Tools and Capacities for Decision – Making – Communication and consultation through an open and transparent multi-stakeholder process are important for establishing trust and support for air quality management decisions; – Emissions inventories and monitoring networks need to be maintained and expanded as a basis for evaluating air quality on an ongoing basis. Emissions and monitoring data should be made publicly available; – While improvements in institutional capacity in developing countries are undeniable, further improvements are needed to enhance the institutional capacity to carry out and enforce air quality policy. 12

13 The Regulatory Challenge – Air, unlike other environmental media, is intangible and not capable of being owned; – It is a transient medium (uncontained and highly mobile); – Often difficult to identify causal links between particular sources and effect of pollutants; – Range of polluters and the sources of pollutant are varied and diverse; – Raises the problem of uncertainly, risk and the application of a precautionary approach. 13

14 Implication on Regulatory and Reduction Efforts – The legal, scientific and economic complexity means that no single regulatory mechanism will suffice; – Various types of mechanism must be used to deal with different facets of the same problem; – All the significant sources such as energy production and consumption, transportation, manufacturing and agriculture are all interconnected (linked with industrialization & economic development) 14

15 General Legal Controls – Air quality standards National Ambient Air Quality Standard Air Quality Index – Land use planning (zoning and transport infrastructure planning); – Building regulations; – Waste management; – Agricultural pollution; – Statutory nuisance; – Private and public nuisance. 15

16 Road Transportation and Regulation of Air Pollution (Focus) – Controlling road and vehicle use through regulations; o Fixed penalty notices; o Traffic management. – Encouraging public transportation; – Use of technology o Retrofitting sources/hybrid vehicles/cleaner fuels; o Monitoring and data generation. 16

17 Technology – Control Devices Control devices either destroy contaminants or remove them from an exhaust stream before its is emitted into the atmosphere. – Particulate Control Mechanical collectors (dust cyclones, multicyclones); – Scrubbers Baffle spray scrubber; Cyclonic spray scrubber; Ejector venturi scrubber; Mechanically aided scrubber; Spray tower; Wet scrubber. 17

18 Technology – Control Devices… – NOx Control Low NOx burners; Selective catalytic reduction (SCR); Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR); NOx scrubber; Exhaust gas recirculation; Catalytic converter (also for VOC control). – VOC abatement Absorption systems; Flares; Thermal oxidizers; Catalytic converters; Biofilters; Cryogenic condensers; Vapor recovery systems. 18

19 Technology – Control Devices… – Acid Gas/SO2 Control Wet scrubbers; Dry scrubbers; Flue gas desulfurization. – Mercury Control Sorbent Injection Technology; Electro – Catalytic Oxidation (ECO); K-Fuel. – Dioxin and Furan Control – Miscellaneous Associated Equipment Source capturing systems; Continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) 19

20 What ELRI – GAMMA Gas Offers – Air Quality Monitoring – airpointer® technology airpointer® is an advanced solution in environmental monitoring/air quality monitoring. o Baseline data (Tree planting/BRT Initiatives) Features – Low operating cost resulting from a highly optimized energy management systems and low maintenance needs; – Requires less space, consumes less electricity; – Remote service feature reduces the need for on-site service; – Various collaborative users can network into the system with their ascribed PN number; 20

21 – Gather air quality data very quickly; – Can be placed to function anywhere due to its very compact dimensions; – Access the monitoring and raw data without special software – (standard internet connection and web browser will suffice); – Has a modular upgradable architecture; – Measure a wide variety of pollutants in a modular platform (with up to seven ambient air analyzers measuring C O – Carbon Monoxide; O 3 – Ozone; SO 2 – Sulfur Dioxide/H 2 S – Hydrogen Sulfide; NO/NO 2 /NOx – Nitrogen Oxides; PM 10 /PM 2.5 – Particulate Matter); 21

22 – Continuously provides real time information to enable quick and prudent reaction in case of accidents; – Enable the building of a network of air monitors. – Installation is easy, plug and play design and easily movable; – Data generated may be used to operate traffic control system; – Data storage for several years, data back-up, and quick data access; – Simply sustainable... 22

23 – Capacity Building in collaboration with our international partners, we can design capacity development programs for MANAGEMENT of equipment and for the specific needs of respective regulatory agencies (Monitoring and Enforcement); – Information Dissemination, we can work with respective regulatory agencies and Ministries to develop tools for dissemination of information and to stimulate public participation in monitoring and enforcement; – Research, we can undertake research programs that will improve knowledge and understanding of air quality management issues, laws and policies. o Needs assessment of gaps/inconsistencies in existing policies, laws and regulations relating to air quality. – Come up with a program of action for development of the project in phases. 23

24 24 Save time and money

25 25 Platform Base Unit

26 26 On-Site Application Easy transportation with the airpointer® mobile lift (Unit is mounted on the lift). airpointer® may be moved up and down using a hydraulic lift. Brackets with fixed 60 mm diameter for mast mounting. Brackets with variable diameter for mast mounting.

27 27 Brackets for wall mounting

28 28 Two different sizes available: 4D for 4 analyzing modules and 2D for up to 2 modules, each with space for additional sensors.

29 29 Optional mast lift, airpointer® may be moved up and down using an electrical lift. So onsite maintenance may be performed without using a ladder. Separate Maintenance Door. Various options for wall and mast mounting, workshop stands, transportation devices as well as hosts available on request.

30 30 Industry and Transportation

31 31 Hot Spots

32 32

33 33 Sensor Interface Platform

34 34 Calibration

35 35

36 36 Maintenance/Diagnostics

37 37 Network Management

38 38 Data Management Individual login for various users and groups

39 39 Download data for offline data evaluation

40 40

41 41

42 42 Integration into existing air quality networks by automatic plain data download.

43 43 Quick view on time series of measurement data and instrument information, both on online data and data stored in the portal data repository.

44 44 Easy integration of airpointer® monitoring data into web sites such as geographical information systems (GIS) or owner's home page.

45 45 POLLUTANT O 3 – Ozone CO – Carbon Monoxide SO 3 – sulfur Dioxide//H 2 S – Hydrogen Sulfide NO/NO 2 /NO X - Nitrogen Oxides PM10/PM2.5 - Particulate Matter



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