Presentation on theme: "Moacir L. Ferreira Jr. July 08, 2011"— Presentation transcript:
1 Moacir L. Ferreira Jr. July 08, 2011 Phase-shift Plasma Turbine Taking off using directly Earth’s atmosphere as propellantMoacir L. Ferreira Jr.July 08, 2011
2 In any expelling-mass propulsion system, power consumption increases exponentially with the exhaust velocity: Δv=ve×ln(mi/mf).Lower ISP means higher propellant consumption.Higher ISP means higher energy consumption.Hence, a reasonable balance/compromise between energy and propellant should be found.An efficient reaction-mass thruster should:use atmospheric gases as propellant;in space, reuse exhaust gases from chemical rockets to amplify the overall ISP;and use clean and dense source of energy.Almost all RF thrusters (Pulsed Inductive Thruster, Magnetoplasma Rocket, Helicon Thruster, etc.) are mainly single-phase based instead of multiphasic.Advantages of the proposed multiphasic RF system over single-phase are:electric power (flow of energy) is more continuous/constant;sequential phase variation produces a more unidirectional thrust;phase rotation keeps plasma more centered.
4 The Phase-shift Plasma Turbine can be comprised of six concentric coils, axially 60° rotated from each other, and by feed by six phases [0° 60° 120° 180° 240° 300°], optionally, not necessarily, placed inside a magnet to increase radial confinement of moving plasma. Internally, it can be coated with a reflective material.The six concentric coils, feed by six phases, produce a radial and longitudinal sequence, which results in helical moving force that, with proper frequency, can interact with any gas/particle (atmospheric, cosmic, ions, rocket exhaust) producing unidirectional thrust force.
6 Neutral gases depend upon correct frequency to enter in the plasma state, e.g., 13.56MHz (frequency most commonly used for plasma processes).If a neutral gas cannot enter in plasma state, then it will be harder to be shifted than a non-neutral.Non-neutral gas, a positively charged one, can be produced with help of positive ion source, but it will require neutralization at output.Two solutions for that:using electron emitter at output; orforming pair (preferably counter-rotating) with another thruster having negatively charged gas produced with help of negative ion source.In both cases, neutralization/recombination will occur naturally far from spacecraft.
9 And increases radial aperture/opening. Longitudinal and radial velocity of the moving force, frequency f=13.56MHz:where L is the axial length of one turn, r is the radius, and f is frequency.Note: 13.56MHz is the frequency most commonly used for plasma processes, but other frequencies can be used instead.More poles per phase, e.g. p=2 [0° 120° 240° 0° 120° 240°], decreases radial and longitudinal velocities:vr=2πrf/pvL=Lf/pAnd increases radial aperture/opening.E.g.: for neutral gases could be, but not necessarily, one pole per phase; non-neutral, two poles per phase.LongitudinalRadialvL=Lfvr=2πrfL=50cmr=40cmvL=6.78 ×106 m/svr=34.08 ×106 m/s
11 Fusion fuels: He-3, Li-6/7, deuterium, and B-11; available on moons, planets and asteroids. Multi-megavolt electrostatic generator (low charge/mass ratio).Neutralization at outputs (low power consumption).Fusion energy conversion directly into electricity by multistage ion collectors; and subsequently recycling byproducts.
12 A spacecraft can take off from an atmospheric environment just using Phase-shift Plasma Turbines powered by Aneutronic Fusion Reactor; in this case, Earth's atmosphere will be used as propellant. At higher altitudes, retractile/moveable chemical rockets can align with intake of Phase-shift Turbines to increase the overall ISP to get into space.The Phase-shift Turbine will be a steadier step before development and test of the Relativistic Space Drive in deep space. Furthermore, the Phase-shift Turbine can be updated to be relativistic, coils shortened to more or less one turn, almost no surrounding fuselage, radially f≥c/(2πr) and longitudinally f≥c/L in order to twist spacetime.
13 Conclusion:Operating in atmospheric environments, mainly during takeoff, and in space reusing exhaust gases from chemical rockets to booster the overall ISP, the Phase-shift Turbine will make liftoffs to space exploration more affordable by improving utilization of both energy and propellant.