Presentation on theme: "Moacir L. Ferreira Jr. July 08, 2011"— Presentation transcript:
1Moacir L. Ferreira Jr. July 08, 2011 Phase-shift Plasma Turbine Taking off using directly Earth’s atmosphere as propellantMoacir L. Ferreira Jr.July 08, 2011
2In any expelling-mass propulsion system, power consumption increases exponentially with the exhaust velocity: Δv=ve×ln(mi/mf).Lower ISP means higher propellant consumption.Higher ISP means higher energy consumption.Hence, a reasonable balance/compromise between energy and propellant should be found.An efficient reaction-mass thruster should:use atmospheric gases as propellant;in space, reuse exhaust gases from chemical rockets to amplify the overall ISP;and use clean and dense source of energy.Almost all RF thrusters (Pulsed Inductive Thruster, Magnetoplasma Rocket, Helicon Thruster, etc.) are mainly single-phase based instead of multiphasic.Advantages of the proposed multiphasic RF system over single-phase are:electric power (flow of energy) is more continuous/constant;sequential phase variation produces a more unidirectional thrust;phase rotation keeps plasma more centered.
4The Phase-shift Plasma Turbine can be comprised of six concentric coils, axially 60° rotated from each other, and by feed by six phases [0° 60° 120° 180° 240° 300°], optionally, not necessarily, placed inside a magnet to increase radial confinement of moving plasma. Internally, it can be coated with a reflective material.The six concentric coils, feed by six phases, produce a radial and longitudinal sequence, which results in helical moving force that, with proper frequency, can interact with any gas/particle (atmospheric, cosmic, ions, rocket exhaust) producing unidirectional thrust force.
6Neutral gases depend upon correct frequency to enter in the plasma state, e.g., 13.56MHz (frequency most commonly used for plasma processes).If a neutral gas cannot enter in plasma state, then it will be harder to be shifted than a non-neutral.Non-neutral gas, a positively charged one, can be produced with help of positive ion source, but it will require neutralization at output.Two solutions for that:using electron emitter at output; orforming pair (preferably counter-rotating) with another thruster having negatively charged gas produced with help of negative ion source.In both cases, neutralization/recombination will occur naturally far from spacecraft.
9And increases radial aperture/opening. Longitudinal and radial velocity of the moving force, frequency f=13.56MHz:where L is the axial length of one turn, r is the radius, and f is frequency.Note: 13.56MHz is the frequency most commonly used for plasma processes, but other frequencies can be used instead.More poles per phase, e.g. p=2 [0° 120° 240° 0° 120° 240°], decreases radial and longitudinal velocities:vr=2πrf/pvL=Lf/pAnd increases radial aperture/opening.E.g.: for neutral gases could be, but not necessarily, one pole per phase; non-neutral, two poles per phase.LongitudinalRadialvL=Lfvr=2πrfL=50cmr=40cmvL=6.78 ×106 m/svr=34.08 ×106 m/s
11Fusion fuels: He-3, Li-6/7, deuterium, and B-11; available on moons, planets and asteroids. Multi-megavolt electrostatic generator (low charge/mass ratio).Neutralization at outputs (low power consumption).Fusion energy conversion directly into electricity by multistage ion collectors; and subsequently recycling byproducts.
12A spacecraft can take off from an atmospheric environment just using Phase-shift Plasma Turbines powered by Aneutronic Fusion Reactor; in this case, Earth's atmosphere will be used as propellant. At higher altitudes, retractile/moveable chemical rockets can align with intake of Phase-shift Turbines to increase the overall ISP to get into space.The Phase-shift Turbine will be a steadier step before development and test of the Relativistic Space Drive in deep space. Furthermore, the Phase-shift Turbine can be updated to be relativistic, coils shortened to more or less one turn, almost no surrounding fuselage, radially f≥c/(2πr) and longitudinally f≥c/L in order to twist spacetime.
13Conclusion:Operating in atmospheric environments, mainly during takeoff, and in space reusing exhaust gases from chemical rockets to booster the overall ISP, the Phase-shift Turbine will make liftoffs to space exploration more affordable by improving utilization of both energy and propellant.