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Moacir L. Ferreira Jr. July 08, 2011

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1 Moacir L. Ferreira Jr. July 08, 2011
Phase-shift Plasma Turbine Taking off using directly Earth’s atmosphere as propellant Moacir L. Ferreira Jr. July 08, 2011

2 In any expelling-mass propulsion system, power consumption increases exponentially with the exhaust velocity: Δv=ve×ln(mi/mf). Lower ISP means higher propellant consumption. Higher ISP means higher energy consumption. Hence, a reasonable balance/compromise between energy and propellant should be found. An efficient reaction-mass thruster should: use atmospheric gases as propellant; in space, reuse exhaust gases from chemical rockets to amplify the overall ISP; and use clean and dense source of energy. Almost all RF thrusters (Pulsed Inductive Thruster, Magnetoplasma Rocket, Helicon Thruster, etc.) are mainly single-phase based instead of multiphasic. Advantages of the proposed multiphasic RF system over single-phase are: electric power (flow of energy) is more continuous/constant; sequential phase variation produces a more unidirectional thrust; phase rotation keeps plasma more centered.


4 The Phase-shift Plasma Turbine can be comprised of six concentric coils, axially 60° rotated from each other, and by feed by six phases [0° 60° 120° 180° 240° 300°], optionally, not necessarily, placed inside a magnet to increase radial confinement of moving plasma. Internally, it can be coated with a reflective material. The six concentric coils, feed by six phases, produce a radial and longitudinal sequence, which results in helical moving force that, with proper frequency, can interact with any gas/particle (atmospheric, cosmic, ions, rocket exhaust) producing unidirectional thrust force.


6 Neutral gases depend upon correct frequency to enter in the plasma state, e.g., 13.56MHz (frequency most commonly used for plasma processes). If a neutral gas cannot enter in plasma state, then it will be harder to be shifted than a non-neutral. Non-neutral gas, a positively charged one, can be produced with help of positive ion source, but it will require neutralization at output. Two solutions for that: using electron emitter at output; or forming pair (preferably counter-rotating) with another thruster having negatively charged gas produced with help of negative ion source. In both cases, neutralization/recombination will occur naturally far from spacecraft.



9 And increases radial aperture/opening.
Longitudinal and radial velocity of the moving force, frequency f=13.56MHz: where L is the axial length of one turn, r is the radius, and f is frequency. Note: 13.56MHz is the frequency most commonly used for plasma processes, but other frequencies can be used instead. More poles per phase, e.g. p=2 [0° 120° 240° 0° 120° 240°], decreases radial and longitudinal velocities: vr=2πrf/p vL=Lf/p And increases radial aperture/opening. E.g.: for neutral gases could be, but not necessarily, one pole per phase; non-neutral, two poles per phase. Longitudinal Radial vL=Lf vr=2πrf L=50cm r=40cm vL=6.78 ×106 m/s vr=34.08 ×106 m/s

10 Fusion Energy Source

11 Fusion fuels: He-3, Li-6/7, deuterium, and B-11; available on moons, planets and asteroids.
Multi-megavolt electrostatic generator (low charge/mass ratio). Neutralization at outputs (low power consumption). Fusion energy conversion directly into electricity by multistage ion collectors; and subsequently recycling byproducts.

12 A spacecraft can take off from an atmospheric environment just using Phase-shift Plasma Turbines powered by Aneutronic Fusion Reactor; in this case, Earth's atmosphere will be used as propellant. At higher altitudes, retractile/moveable chemical rockets can align with intake of Phase-shift Turbines to increase the overall ISP to get into space. The Phase-shift Turbine will be a steadier step before development and test of the Relativistic Space Drive in deep space. Furthermore, the Phase-shift Turbine can be updated to be relativistic, coils shortened to more or less one turn, almost no surrounding fuselage, radially f≥c/(2πr) and longitudinally f≥c/L in order to twist spacetime.

13 Conclusion: Operating in atmospheric environments, mainly during takeoff, and in space reusing exhaust gases from chemical rockets to booster the overall ISP, the Phase-shift Turbine will make liftoffs to space exploration more affordable by improving utilization of both energy and propellant.

14 Thank You

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