2Providing for the cell’s needs The cell theory states that all living organisms are made up of cells or substances produced by cells.All cells need nutrients eg glucose and oxygen in order to function properly, be active and grow.The cells use the nutrients and produce wastes eg carbon dioxide that must be removed as they can be toxic and damage the cells.The process that provides energy for the activity of cells is cellular respiration. The formula for cellular respiration is:glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + ENERGYC6H12O6 + O2 CO2 + H2O + Energy (ATP + waste heat)
3Why we need organ systems Organisms which are single-celled or very small and thin (less than 1 mm) can exchange materials through their body surfaces.Because most multi-cellular organisms are too large for exchange of nutrients and wastes to occur through their body surfaces, they need organs to allow this exchange. Most multi-cellular organisms have organs arranged in systems to do this:A transport system - called the circulatory system to bring these nutrients to the cells, and to carry away wastes,A system to allow exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide - called the respiratory systemA system to obtain nutrients - called the digestive systemA system to deal with and remove wastes from the body - called the excretory system
4Respiratory SurfacesGases are exchanged with the environment at the respiratory surface.Gas movement is by diffusion.Gases are dissolved in water, so respiratory surfaces must be moistRespiratory surfaces are usually thin and have large areas as well as adaptations to facilitate the exchange.Different organisms have different adaptations, based on their size, body covering and habitat.
5Gas exchange in aquatic animals Oxygen is already dissolved in the waterThere is no problem with drying out of surfaces, only in preventing physical damageOxygen has low solubility in waterThe challenge is to provide sufficient surface area for exchange
6GillsGills greatly increase the surface area for gas exchange. They occur in a variety of animal groups including arthropods (including some terrestrial crustaceans), annelids, fish, and amphibians.Gills typically are folded outgrowths containing blood vessels covered by a thin epithelial layer. Typically gills are organized into a series of plates and may be internal (as in crabs and fish) or external to the body (as in some amphibians).Gills are very efficient at removing oxygen from water: there is only 1/20 the amount of oxygen present in water as in the same volume of air. Water flows over gills in one direction while blood flows in the opposite direction through gill capillaries. This counter-current maximizes oxygen transfer.
7Gas exchange in terrestrial animals Oxygen is not already dissolved in water so moist surfaces must be provided for it to dissolveSurfaces need to be protected from drying out, as well as preventing physical damageMost animals have internal surfaces for gas exchange, although smaller animals living in moist conditions eg amphibians, worms can exchange gases through their skinThe challenge is to provide protection and sufficient surface area for exchange
8Tracheal systemsMany terrestrial animals and some of their aquatic larvae have their respiratory surfaces inside the body and connected to the outside by a series of tubes.Tracheae are these tubes that carry air directly to cells for gas exchange.Spiracles are openings at the body surface that lead to tracheae that branch into smaller tubes known as tracheoles.Body movements or contractions speed up the rate of diffusion of gases from tracheae into body cells.However, tracheae will not function well in animals whose body is longer than 5 cm.
9LungsLungs are found inside of the body wall and connect to the outside by as series of tubes and small openings.Lungs are found mainly in vertebrates, but some terrestrial snails have a gas exchange structures similar to those in frogs.
11Special featuresNoseWarms, moistens and filters air, allows sense of smell, allows resonance of sounds (speech)and has the following special features:Hairs, cilia and mucus trap small particles, mucous membranes produce mucus for filtering and moisten the air, large folds (conchae) increase the surface area, large blood supply (capillary network) helps warm the airAirways – Larynx, Trachea and Bronchi have cartilage to keep them open, airways have cilia and mucus to trap small particles, mucous membranes produce mucus for filtering and moistening airLungs – are elastic – can stretch to let air in & relax to original sizeMuscles – diaphragm and intercostals pull air in and push them out
12BreathingDuring inspiration, the external intercostals contract, the diaphragm contracts down, the internal intercostals relax, the volume of the thorax increases, the pressure in the thorax decreases, and air moves in to the lungs.During expiration, the external intercostals relax, the diaphragm relaxes and moves upwards, the internal intercostals contract, the volume of the thorax decreases, the pressure in the thorax increases, and air moves out of the lungs.
14Exchange at the alveoli Features of the lungs that help increase gas exchange include:large surface area due to lots of alveoli - this increases the amount of exchange that can occurlarge blood supply due to lots of capillaries - this brings lots of blood to be oxygenatedthin membranes of alveoli so that diffusion can happen easilylungs positioned inside so that they can’t be damaged or dried out easilylung volume can be changed so that high oxygen and low carbon dioxide levels are maintained – this increases diffusion