Presentation on theme: "The Gas Laws and Stoichiometry Honors Option for Chemistry."— Presentation transcript:
The Gas Laws and Stoichiometry Honors Option for Chemistry
Kinetic Model of Gases The Big Variables are P, V and T P is created by molecules colliding with the walls of the container
V is the space allowed for the gas: remember gases are compressible T is proportional to the average kinetic energy
Boyles Law At a certain, fixed temperature the volume of a gas is proportional to the inverse of the pressure.
Charles Law Under constant pressure, as the temperature of a gas increases so does the volume
Gay-Lussacs Law Under constant volume, the pressure and temperature are proportional
Avogadros Law Equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure have the same number of molecules
Which Law is It?
Combined Gas Law So, why struggle to remember all those people and laws when We can summarize them With the combined gas law. This law can be used to solve Problems with ANY of the Boyle-Charles-Gay-Lussac Conditions. Just leave out the Variable that is constant And only 1 law to remember!
Using the Ideal Gas Law What is an ideal gas? How do gases deviate from the ideal? No gas is really ideal. However, this law gives good approximation of gas behavior. It does not work well when the temperature is low (near boiling point) or when the Pressure is high. Both of those conditions mean that the particles are very close Together and will experience forces between them. Molecules with high molar masses Also tent away from the ideal.
PV =nRT The ideal gas law! This law uses the relationships from the combined law and add molar ratio This is often used to find molar mass or density Remember that molar mass is g/mole so g/n And density is mass/volume n/V x g/mole (molar mass)
Which Law to Use? P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 T 1 T 2 Conditions are changing Example: A piston (volume changes as it moves in and out) A balloon moving up in the atmosphere (the outside P decreases) PV = nRT Conditions are constant But one variable is unknown Finding the number of moles of a gas at known temperature, volume and pressure (STP for one) Finding any variable for a given chemical reaction
Stoichiometry Combined with Gas Laws Example: For the reaction: 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O How many liters of oxygen are needed to react with 2.56 moles of hydrogen at STP? 1.Find the moles of O 2 needed. Use the molar ratio. 2.56 moles 1 mole = 1.28 moles O 2 2 moles 2.Change the moles to liters Sub into PV = nRT V = nRT/P V = (1.28 moles)(.08205 L atm/Kmol)(273K)/(1atm) V = 28.67 L; with sig figs 28.7 L
An unknown gas has a density of 0.89 g/ml at a pressure of 0.900 atm and temperature of 25 C. What is the molar mass? 1.Use PV = nRT molar mass = g/mol 2.n/V = P/RT sub in 3.n/V = (0.900 atm)/(0.08205 Latm/Kmol)(25 + 273 K) n/V = 1.0 mol/L 4.We want g/mol for molar mass 0.89 g x 1000 ml x 1 L = 890 g/mol ml 1 L 1.0 mol