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Hydraulic Fracturing in the USA

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1 Hydraulic Fracturing in the USA
Angela Bianconi Megan Fleming Geetika Srivastava Anastasia Stolz Sarah Tenison

2 Fracking Introduction: What is it?
Angela Bianconi

3 A drill site is prepared, a rig is moved in and drilling begins
A drill site is prepared, a rig is moved in and drilling begins -Sometimes offered $100,000 to drill on lands of homeowners

4 Multiple barriers of steel casing and cement are installed to protect a freshwater aquifer located 10-1,500 feet below the surface, throughout the life of the well

5 Drilling continues vertically thousands of feet below the surface to the kickoff point. From there, the curved and horizontal sections are drilled laterally thousands of feet into the target formation

6 In a controlled operation, a specialized mixture of water, sand and chemical additives are injected into the wellbore at sufficient pressure to create small cracks or fractures in the shale

7 Typically, the multistage hydraulic fracturing process is completed over a 2 to 5 day period. After the well is completed and the surface facilities are installed, the well is placed on production for years. Portions of the well site not needed for production are restored.


9 So, What is Shale? Anastasia Stolz

10 What is Shale? Shale- Black, low-density, organic- rich rock formed millions of years ago, located thousands of feet below Earth’s surface Natural gas formed during shale decomposition is trapped in tiny crevices in the shale


12 Fracking: The Good and the Bad
Anastasia Stolz

13 Benefits of Fracking >$1,000,000,000,000 of Natural Gas in the Shale Creating Jobs in construction and drilling Independence from foreign oil sources Cleaner Burning Fuel Tax Revenues

14 Infrastructural Concerns
Noise Pollution Property Devaluation EMS and Emergency Procedures Road Damage Increase in Taxes

15 Environmental Impacts
Earthquakes Air Pollution Land Use Water Use Chemicals Environmental and Health Effects Air pollution not only from the well sites but also from the trucks and heavy equipment

16 Air Pollution The process of Hydraulic fracturing causes various chemicals and pollutants to be released into the air Comes from: The well The trucks Open Air impoundments

17 Land Use 4-6 Acres are necessary per well
3-5 years, possibly even longer Land becomes restricted access even parks or public land

18 Water Use and Pollution
1-5 million gallons of water is needed per Frack Infused with chemicals 10-20% of water injected comes back up Waste water treatment plants are ill equipped Produced Water Open Impoundments Spills 1,600 violations in Pennsylvania Well water contamination

19 Chemicals Originally proprietary
Studies were done due to people developing various ailments In 2011, EPA published a comprehensive list of chemicals in Frack Water 1071 Chemicals counted


21 Examples of chemicals (Split Estate)
Examples of Organic Compounds Health Effects Acetone Birth defects, headaches, confusion Benzene Cancer, Leukemia Ethylbenzene Reparatory problems, fatigue, headaches Toluene Birth Defects, CNS Damage Xylene Headaches, Balance problems, Memory Loss Examples of Pollutants Health Effects Arsenic Cancer Hydrogen Sulfide Headache, Nausea, Vomiting, Loss of Memory and Motor Function Mercury Brain Damage, Kidney Damage, Birth Defects Polycyclic Aromatic

22 Governmental Policy Sara Tenison

23 Governmental Policy History
Government policies have influenced the natural gas industry from the get go Prices of natural gas were unregulated until the 50s. Became regulated so that companies that owned the wells and the pipelines could not charge unfair prices The 1973 Congress passed the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 discouraged the use of natural gas in favor of coal and renewable fuels Arab oil embargo heightened Congress’ fear of low oil and gas supplies

24 Governmental Policy History
Congress passed the Natural Gas Policy Act of (NGPA) Relaxed federal price controls intended the NGPA to create a national natural gas market and to allow market forces to determine wellhead prices (supply and demand, etc.) Drilling, production and piping increased Prices of natural gas increased

25 Governmental Policy History
Pipelines and drilling eventually became less regulated Allowing for smaller businesses to crop up Increased competition Decreased prices No more “bundles” Fewer monopolies of large companies

26 Natural Gas in Texas Sara Tenison


28 Use of Natural Gas in Texas
The most common source of energy in the state Used in fleet vehicles and busses Reduced 2005 fiscal consumption of gasoline in Texas by 5 million gallons

29 Production of Natural Gas in Texas
Costs of drilling horizontal wells are around 50 percent higher than that for vertical wells. However, the daily production is three to five times higher In 1993, the chairman of Oryx Energy Co. Gas in shale or coal beds were previously considered unrecoverable or uneconomic The rise in gas prices has encouraged exploration Only when natural gas prices are high is it worth drilling through these sources to harvest the gas. Drilling in these areas is expected to increase Texas is nation’s leading producer of natural gas In 2006, produced 27.8 percent of total U.S. production


31 Barnett Shale It's a vast rock formation
underlies 5,000 square miles surrounding Fort Worth. Barnett Shale field is the second-largest natural gas field in the continental U.S. To date there are more than 12,000 gas wells in the Barnett Shale

32 Barnett Shale Continued
In the past decade the number of gas compressors in the Barnett has jumped from a few hundred to 1,300 -To get the gas to market requires an underground highway of pipelines and compression stations. These big internal combustion engines make noise and put pollutants into the air -They're getting closer and closer to populated areas

33 Texas Policy In Texas, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has delegated most of its authority over major federal environmental laws to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. Such as its power over the Clean Air Act The major exception is oil and gas exploration and production the Railroad Commission of Texas (RRC) has the EPA’s authority to deal with these matters

34 Texas Policy Continued
The companies have the right under federal law to condemn privately owned land to build the project. This law covers pipeline companies who receive FERC approval for a project but; Are unable to negotiate passage or price with the private landowners Landowners must be fairly compensated  This practice is largely avoided where possible because of the potential for dispute

35 Texas Fracking Policy Outside of regular federal policy, Texas has not added very much legislation to regulate fracking Was one of the first two states to require companies to disclose a list of chemicals used Still does not require disclosure of proprietary The state also has required groundwater data at thousands of wells

36 Local Problems In order to avoid drying up sources of water, most of the water drawn from any water source is returned to where it was gotten bad because it is polluted by the time it gets back Complaints of stomach issues, nausea and vomiting DISH, Texas

37 Dish, Texas 2sq miles, 150 thousand people
10 massive gas lines carry a billion cubic feet per day through the town the pipelines shoot the gas to the air settles in one of the subdivisions the people in that subdivision thought they were going to die local complaints of headaches, diarrhea, nosebleeds, dizziness, muscle spasms and other problems As a result, DISH conducted its own air quality test at a cost of 15 percent of the town's annual budget revealed a toxic mixture of air pollution

38 Dish, Texas the air from that area had lots of benzene, naphthalene, disulfides, was at 55 times benzene health standards and 105 times disulfide standards (Gasland) the town petitioned and won the right to install permanent air monitors one of seven in the entire state of Texas. cancer and neurotoxins will show effect over a long time of exposure (FracAction) The mayor just recently moved out of the town, wishing to remove his sons from the poisonous air. Media calls him “overdramatic”

39 Texas Outlook US demand for natural gas is expected to keep increasing
Very few epidemiological studies have been done to link complaints and fracking. Individuals “smell things that don’t make them feel well, but we know nothing about cause-and-effect relationships in these cases” Some local governments are researching means by which they can drill on existing public land (e.g., parks and cities)

40 Manufacturing Uncertainty
Tobacco Companies used to deny smoking was bad with these same techniques ExxonMobil waged the most successful global warming denial campaign since the Big Tobacco Companies (sunnysuffolk) Admitted in 2007: Used  information laundering  used seemingly independent front groups to wagepublic relations for the company. Funneled about $16 million to these front groups to manufacture this uncertainty. Paid scientists to cherry-pick data and misrepresent peer-reviewed scientific evidence Raised doubt and shifted the focus away from global warming action by questioning if the data was "sound science". Used its extraordinary access to the Bush Administration to block regulation and shape governmental communications about global warming. The question must be raised: Is this happening again?

41 Policy in Ohio Geetika Srivastava

42 Unclear Relatively new Ohio
Not as many well sites compared to other states Policies ambiguous and unclear as to whose responsibility it is Major regulators: ODNR and EPA

43 Utica and Marcellus Shale

44 Utica Shale and Marcellus Shale

45 Ohio Department of Natural Resources
Drilling Production Reclamation Brine Disposal Salt Solution Mining Underground Injection Well-Monitoring Issuing permits Setting designs Wastewater Management

46 Recent Additions Notifications from companies
Ensuring casing is properly placed as permitted Testing of blow-out prevention devices Monitoring of handling of fluid

47 Does not set guidelines for private property leasing
No mention how often these checks and regulations are required No mention of reviews

48 Environmental Protection Agency
Requires companies to obtain authorization for drilling near bodies of water Permits needed to install units for activities that emit air pollutants Proper containment devices and waste management

49 New Revisions New permit – more general to deal with inconsistencies in standards from well to well Emissions limit Operating restrictions Monitoring, testing, and reporting News to be heard on Nov. 28th

50 However Emissions include:
Internal combustion engines Dehydration systems Truck-loading racks Storage tanks Flares Unpaved roadways Does not include emissions from actual drilling and fracturing Considered temporary and exempt from air pollution regulations

51 Also Do not have policies or regulations on leases between private owners and businesses Do not state how often regulations and requirements must be met

52 New York Fracking Megan Fleming

53 Where is the Marcellus Shale?
Extends throughout 5 states: New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland

54 Marcellus Shale in New York

55 Marcellus Shale in New York
First well drilled in 1821 Over 75,000 wells drilled from 1821-present Approximately 14,000 wells are still active In 2008 New York imported 95% of its natural gas from the southwest, but this dependence is quickly decreasing

56 Fracking Not Welcome New York divided into 17 watersheds
Fracking only requires 0.24% increase in water supply Delaware River Watershed provides water to 15.6 million people from: Trenton, Philadelphia, Southern New Jersey, New York City

57 Delaware River Basin Commission (DRBC)
Current debate on whether to allow fracking in Delaware River Basin 20,000 gas wells can be drilled in Basin Natural Gas Development Regulations currently being formed with top priority to protect the water resources of the Basin during construction and operation of fracking projects

58 In Conclusion In conclusion, there is no denying that natural gas is extremely useful and beneficial to our economy and to our lives. However, there is a need for a new, safer, way to harvest the natural gas. Hydraulic fracturing is not the answer to our energy needs. It is, instead, a nightmare to those citizens who are around it.

59 Sources Cited Burnett, John. "Health Issues Follow Natural Gas Drilling in Texas." National Public Radio, 3 Nov Web. 21 Nov < gas-drilling-texas>. Clarke, Rupert. "Delaware River Basin Commission Overview." The Official Web Site for The State of New Jersey. DRBC, Web. 12 Nov < Clarke, Rupert. "The Delaware River Basin." The Official Web Site for The State of New Jersey. DRBC, Oct Web. 12 Nov < Demirjian, Joan (2008). Home near gas well on brink of explosion. Chagrin Valley Times. 10-22. DRBC. "DRBC -- Draft Natural Gas Development Regulations." The Official Web Site for The State of New Jersey. DRBC, 17 Nov Web. 12 Nov < Environmental Protection Agency. (2011, November). Plan to study the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources. Retrieved from Fox, J. (Director) (2009). GASLAND [DVD]. "Hydraulic Fracturing of Oil & Gas Wells Drilled in Shale." News and Information for Geology & Earth Science., Web. 12 Nov < Gill, Brad. "The Facts About Natural Gas Exploration of the Marcellus Shale."Homegrown Energy. Independent Oil & Gas Association of New York, Web. 12 Nov < "Hydrofracking." ZOMOBO - the Real-time Encyclopedia. Web. 21 Nov < Leff, Eugene. "Revised Draft Supplemental Generic Environmental Impact Statement On The Oil, Gas and Solution Mining Regulatory Program." New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. NYSDEC, 7 Sept Web. 12 Nov < Mandia, Scott A. "Global Warming: Man or Myth." Global Warming Denial Machine. 21 June Web. 21 Nov < Natural gas and the environment. ( ). Retrieved from NYSDEC. "NYS Watersheds - NYS Dept. of Environmental Conservation." New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. NYSDEC, Web. 12 Nov < Phillips, Susan. "Marcellus Shale | StateImpact Pennsylvania." NPR StateImpact: Issues That Matter. Close To Home. StateImpact, 18 Nov Web. 18 Nov < Red Rock Pictures, LLC. (Producer) (2009). Split Estate [DVD]. Reduce oil dependence costs. (2011, November 18). Retrieved from Seward, James L. "Natural Gas Drilling - Draft SGEIS." New York State Senate. Drupal, Nov Web. 12 Nov < Stolz, J.F. "Environmental Impacts of Unconventional Shale Gas Extraction." Geology Seminar. University of Dayton Geology Department. University of Dayton. [Lecture]. 4 November 2011. "The Facts About Fracking." Texas Institute | Delivering Sustainable Technology Innovation with Industry, Government, and Leading Universities. Web. 21 Nov < The Ohio Department of Natural Resources (n.d). Fracking Fact Sheet. Retrieved from: The Ohio Department of Natural Resources (n.d). Leasing Fact Sheet. Retrieved from: The Ohio Department of Natural Resources (n.d). Safety Fact Sheet. Retrieved from: The Ohio Department of Natural Resources (n.d). Wastewater Fact Sheet. Retrievedfrom: The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (July, 2011). Drilling for Natural Gas in the Marcellus and Utica Shales: Environmental Regulatory Basics. Retrieved from: The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (June, 2011). Recommendation for Water Well Sampling Before Oil and Gas Drilling. Retrieved from: Union of Concerned Scientists. "Smoke Mirrors and Hot Air." How Exxon Mobile Uses Big Tobacco Tactics to Manufacture Uncertainty on Climate Science (2007). Print. Zweig, S. (9, November 30). Hydraulic fracturing (hydrofracking): The risks and rewards of the controversial drilling technique.. Retrieved from content/uploads/2009/11/hydraulic-3.pdf

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