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H YDRAULIC F RACTURING IN THE USA Angela Bianconi Megan Fleming Geetika Srivastava Anastasia Stolz Sarah Tenison.

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Presentation on theme: "H YDRAULIC F RACTURING IN THE USA Angela Bianconi Megan Fleming Geetika Srivastava Anastasia Stolz Sarah Tenison."— Presentation transcript:

1 H YDRAULIC F RACTURING IN THE USA Angela Bianconi Megan Fleming Geetika Srivastava Anastasia Stolz Sarah Tenison

2 F RACKING I NTRODUCTION : W HAT IS IT ? Angela Bianconi ju

3 A drill site is prepared, a rig is moved in and drilling begins -Sometimes offered $100,000 to drill on lands of homeowners AAABaM/_lFbgsbfXX0/s320/Shale+Well+Hickory+Pa.jpg 3

4 Multiple barriers of steel casing and cement are installed to protect a freshwater aquifer located 10-1,500 feet below the surface, throughout the life of the well 4

5 Drilling continues vertically thousands of feet below the surface to the kickoff point. From there, the curved and horizontal sections are drilled laterally thousands of feet into the target formation 00hbKm9dSd0/Te_yerme4MI/AAAAAAAACL4/FlFV8gsDToo/s1600/horizontal+hydraulic+fracturing+drilling.jpg 5

6 In a controlled operation, a specialized mixture of water, sand and chemical additives are injected into the wellbore at sufficient pressure to create small cracks or fractures in the shale 6

7 Typically, the multistage hydraulic fracturing process is completed over a 2 to 5 day period. After the well is completed and the surface facilities are installed, the well is placed on production for years. Portions of the well site not needed for production are restored. 7

8 X1hEfcGJuUQ/TXXNHPs_znI/AAAAAAAAAGg/3V8- 4DUReKI/s1600/Natural_Gas_Fracking1.jpg completion.html 8

9 S O, W HAT IS S HALE ? Anastasia Stolz

10 W HAT IS S HALE ? Shale- Black, low-density, organic- rich rock formed millions of years ago, located thousands of feet below Earths surface Natural gas formed during shale decomposition is trapped in tiny crevices in the shale 10

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12 F RACKING : T HE G OOD AND THE B AD Anastasia Stolz

13 B ENEFITS OF F RACKING >$1,000,000,000,000 of Natural Gas in the Shale Creating Jobs in construction and drilling Independence from foreign oil sources Cleaner Burning Fuel Tax Revenues 13

14 I NFRASTRUCTURAL C ONCERNS Noise Pollution Property Devaluation EMS and Emergency Procedures Road Damage Increase in Taxes lagasexplosion.jpg?w=300 14

15 E NVIRONMENTAL I MPACTS Earthquakes Air Pollution Land Use Water Use Chemicals Environmental and Health Effects 15

16 A IR P OLLUTION The process of Hydraulic fracturing causes various chemicals and pollutants to be released into the air Comes from: The well The trucks Open Air impoundments 16

17 L AND U SE 4-6 Acres are necessary per well 3-5 years, possibly even longer Land becomes restricted access even parks or public land l_gas/ppal_drilling_signs_0697_470x340_ jpg 17

18 W ATER U SE AND P OLLUTION 1-5 million gallons of water is needed per Frack Infused with chemicals 10-20% of water injected comes back up Waste water treatment plants are ill equipped Produced Water Open Impoundments Spills 1,600 violations in Pennsylvania Well water contamination 18

19 C HEMICALS Originally proprietary Studies were done due to people developing various ailments In 2011, EPA published a comprehensive list of chemicals in Frack Water 1071 Chemicals counted 19

20 8.pdf 20

21 E XAMPLES OF CHEMICALS (S PLIT E STATE ) Examples of Organic Compounds Health Effects AcetoneBirth defects, headaches, confusion BenzeneCancer, Leukemia EthylbenzeneReparatory problems, fatigue, headaches TolueneBirth Defects, CNS Damage XyleneHeadaches, Balance problems, Memory Loss Examples of PollutantsHealth Effects ArsenicCancer Hydrogen SulfideHeadache, Nausea, Vomiting, Loss of Memory and Motor Function MercuryBrain Damage, Kidney Damage, Birth Defects Polycyclic AromaticCancer 21


23 G OVERNMENTAL P OLICY H ISTORY Government policies have influenced the natural gas industry from the get go Prices of natural gas were unregulated until the 50s. Became regulated so that companies that owned the wells and the pipelines could not charge unfair prices The 1973 Congress passed the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 discouraged the use of natural gas in favor of coal and renewable fuels Arab oil embargo heightened Congress fear of low oil and gas supplies 23

24 G OVERNMENTAL P OLICY H ISTORY Congress passed the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA) Relaxed federal price controls intended the NGPA to create a national natural gas market and to allow market forces to determine wellhead prices (supply and demand, etc.) Drilling, production and piping increased Prices of natural gas increased 24

25 G OVERNMENTAL P OLICY H ISTORY Pipelines and drilling eventually became less regulated Allowing for smaller businesses to crop up Increased competition Decreased prices No more bundles Fewer monopolies of large companies 25

26 N ATURAL G AS IN T EXAS Sara Tenison

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28 U SE OF N ATURAL G AS IN T EXAS The most common source of energy in the state Used in fleet vehicles and busses Reduced 2005 fiscal consumption of gasoline in Texas by 5 million gallons 28

29 P RODUCTION OF N ATURAL G AS IN T EXAS Costs of drilling horizontal wells are around 50 percent higher than that for vertical wells. However, the daily production is three to five times higher In 1993, the chairman of Oryx Energy Co. Gas in shale or coal beds were previously considered unrecoverable or uneconomic – The rise in gas prices has encouraged exploration – Only when natural gas prices are high is it worth drilling through these sources to harvest the gas. – Drilling in these areas is expected to increase Texas is nations leading producer of natural gas – In 2006, produced 27.8 percent of total U.S. production 29

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31 B ARNETT S HALE It's a vast rock formation underlies 5,000 square miles surrounding Fort Worth. Barnett Shale field is the second-largest natural gas field in the continental U.S. To date there are more than 12,000 gas wells in the Barnett Shale 31

32 B ARNETT S HALE C ONTINUED In the past decade the number of gas compressors in the Barnett has jumped from a few hundred to 1,300 -To get the gas to market requires an underground highway of pipelines and compression stations. These big internal combustion engines make noise and put pollutants into the air -They're getting closer and closer to populated areas 32

33 T EXAS P OLICY In Texas, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has delegated most of its authority over major federal environmental laws to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. Such as its power over the Clean Air Act The major exception is oil and gas exploration and production the Railroad Commission of Texas (RRC) has the EPAs authority to deal with these matters 33

34 T EXAS P OLICY C ONTINUED The companies have the right under federal law to condemn privately owned land to build the project. This law covers pipeline companies who receive FERC approval for a project but; Are unable to negotiate passage or price with the private landowners Landowners must be fairly compensated This practice is largely avoided where possible because of the potential for dispute 34

35 T EXAS F RACKING P OLICY Outside of regular federal policy, Texas has not added very much legislation to regulate fracking Was one of the first two states to require companies to disclose a list of chemicals used Still does not require disclosure of proprietary The state also has required groundwater data at thousands of wells 35

36 L OCAL P ROBLEMS In order to avoid drying up sources of water, most of the water drawn from any water source is returned to where it was gotten bad because it is polluted by the time it gets back Complaints of stomach issues, nausea and vomiting DISH, Texas 36

37 D ISH, T EXAS 2sq miles, 150 thousand people 10 massive gas lines carry a billion cubic feet per day through the town the pipelines shoot the gas to the air settles in one of the subdivisions the people in that subdivision thought they were going to die local complaints of headaches, diarrhea, nosebleeds, dizziness, muscle spasms and other problems As a result, DISH conducted its own air quality test at a cost of 15 percent of the town's annual budget revealed a toxic mixture of air pollution 37

38 D ISH, T EXAS the air from that area had lots of benzene, naphthalene, disulfides, was at 55 times benzene health standards and 105 times disulfide standards (Gasland) the town petitioned and won the right to install permanent air monitors one of seven in the entire state of Texas. cancer and neurotoxins will show effect over a long time of exposure (FracAction) The mayor just recently moved out of the town, wishing to remove his sons from the poisonous air. Media calls him overdramatic 38

39 T EXAS O UTLOOK US demand for natural gas is expected to keep increasing Very few epidemiological studies have been done to link complaints and fracking. Individuals smell things that dont make them feel well, but we know nothing about cause-and-effect relationships in these cases Some local governments are researching means by which they can drill on existing public land (e.g., parks and cities) 39

40 M ANUFACTURING U NCERTAINTY Tobacco Companies used to deny smoking was bad with these same techniques ExxonMobil waged the most successful global warming denial campaign since the Big Tobacco Companies (sunnysuffolk) Admitted in 2007: Used information laundering used seemingly independent front groups to wagepublic relations for the company. Funneled about $16 million to these front groups to manufacture this uncertainty. Paid scientists to cherry-pick data and misrepresent peer- reviewed scientific evidence Raised doubt and shifted the focus away from global warming action by questioning if the data was "sound science". Used its extraordinary access to the Bush Administration to block regulation and shape governmental communications about global warming. The question must be raised: Is this happening again? 40

41 P OLICY IN O HIO Geetika Srivastava

42 U NCLEAR Relatively new Ohio Not as many well sites compared to other states Policies ambiguous and unclear as to whose responsibility it is Major regulators: ODNR and EPA 42



45 O HIO D EPARTMENT OF N ATURAL R ESOURCES Drilling Production Reclamation Brine Disposal Salt Solution Mining Underground Injection Well-Monitoring Issuing permits Setting designs Wastewater Management 45

46 R ECENT A DDITIONS Notifications from companies Ensuring casing is properly placed as permitted Testing of blow-out prevention devices Monitoring of handling of fluid 46

47 Does not set guidelines for private property leasing No mention how often these checks and regulations are required No mention of reviews 47

48 E NVIRONMENTAL P ROTECTION A GENCY Requires companies to obtain authorization for drilling near bodies of water Permits needed to install units for activities that emit air pollutants Proper containment devices and waste management 48

49 N EW R EVISIONS New permit – more general to deal with inconsistencies in standards from well to well Emissions limit Operating restrictions Monitoring, testing, and reporting News to be heard on Nov. 28th 49

50 H OWEVER Emissions include: Internal combustion engines Dehydration systems Truck-loading racks Storage tanks Flares Unpaved roadways Does not include emissions from actual drilling and fracturing Considered temporary and exempt from air pollution regulations 50

51 A LSO Do not have policies or regulations on leases between private owners and businesses Do not state how often regulations and requirements must be met 51

52 N EW Y ORK F RACKING Megan Fleming

53 W HERE IS THE M ARCELLUS S HALE ? Extends throughout 5 states: New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland 53


55 M ARCELLUS S HALE IN N EW Y ORK First well drilled in 1821 Over 75,000 wells drilled from 1821-present Approximately 14,000 wells are still active In 2008 New York imported 95% of its natural gas from the southwest, but this dependence is quickly decreasing 55

56 F RACKING N OT W ELCOME New York divided into 17 watersheds Fracking only requires 0.24% increase in water supply Delaware River Watershed provides water to 15.6 million people from: Trenton, Philadelphia, Southern New Jersey, New York City 56

57 D ELAWARE R IVER B ASIN C OMMISSION (DRBC) Current debate on whether to allow fracking in Delaware River Basin 20,000 gas wells can be drilled in Basin Natural Gas Development Regulations currently being formed with top priority to protect the water resources of the Basin during construction and operation of fracking projects 57

58 I N C ONCLUSION In conclusion, there is no denying that natural gas is extremely useful and beneficial to our economy and to our lives. However, there is a need for a new, safer, way to harvest the natural gas. Hydraulic fracturing is not the answer to our energy needs. It is, instead, a nightmare to those citizens who are around it. 58

59 S OURCES C ITED Burnett, John. "Health Issues Follow Natural Gas Drilling in Texas." National Public Radio, 3 Nov Web. 21 Nov Clarke, Rupert. "Delaware River Basin Commission Overview." The Official Web Site for The State of New Jersey. DRBC, Web. 12 Nov Clarke, Rupert. "The Delaware River Basin." The Official Web Site for The State of New Jersey. DRBC, Oct Web. 12 Nov Demirjian, Joan (2008). Home near gas well on brink of explosion. Chagrin Valley Times DRBC. "DRBC -- Draft Natural Gas Development Regulations." The Official Web Site for The State of New Jersey. DRBC, 17 Nov Web. 12 Nov Environmental Protection Agency. (2011, November). Plan to study the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources. Retrieved from Fox, J. (Director) (2009). GASLAND [DVD]. "Hydraulic Fracturing of Oil & Gas Wells Drilled in Shale." News and Information for Geology & Earth Science., Web. 12 Nov Gill, Brad. "The Facts About Natural Gas Exploration of the Marcellus Shale." Homegrown Energy. Independent Oil & Gas Association of New York, Web. 12 Nov "Hydrofracking." ZOMOBO - the Real-time Encyclopedia. Web. 21 Nov Leff, Eugene. "Revised Draft Supplemental Generic Environmental Impact Statement On The Oil, Gas and Solution Mining Regulatory Program." New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. NYSDEC, 7 Sept Web. 12 Nov Mandia, Scott A. "Global Warming: Man or Myth." Global Warming Denial Machine. 21 June Web. 21 Nov Natural gas and the environment. ( ). Retrieved from NYSDEC. "NYS Watersheds - NYS Dept. of Environmental Conservation." New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. NYSDEC, Web. 12 Nov Phillips, Susan. "Marcellus Shale | StateImpact Pennsylvania." NPR StateImpact: Issues That Matter. Close To Home. StateImpact, 18 Nov Web. 18 Nov Red Rock Pictures, LLC. (Producer) (2009). Split Estate [DVD]. Reduce oil dependence costs. (2011, November 18). Retrieved from Seward, James L. "Natural Gas Drilling - Draft SGEIS." New York State Senate. Drupal, Nov Web. 12 Nov Stolz, J.F. "Environmental Impacts of Unconventional Shale Gas Extraction." Geology Seminar. University of Dayton Geology Department. University of Dayton. [Lecture]. 4 November "The Facts About Fracking." Texas Institute | Delivering Sustainable Technology Innovation with Industry, Government, and Leading Universities. Web. 21 Nov The Ohio Department of Natural Resources (n.d). Fracking Fact Sheet. Retrieved from: The Ohio Department of Natural Resources (n.d). Leasing Fact Sheet. Retrieved from: The Ohio Department of Natural Resources (n.d). Safety Fact Sheet. Retrieved from: The Ohio Department of Natural Resources (n.d). Wastewater Fact Sheet. Retrievedfrom: The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (July, 2011). Drilling for Natural Gas in the Marcellus and Utica Shales: Environmental Regulatory Basics. Retrieved from: The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (June, 2011). Recommendation for Water Well Sampling Before Oil and Gas Drilling. Retrieved from: Union of Concerned Scientists. "Smoke Mirrors and Hot Air." How Exxon Mobile Uses Big Tobacco Tactics to Manufacture Uncertainty on Climate Science (2007). Print. Zweig, S. (9, November 30). Hydraulic fracturing (hydrofracking): The risks and rewards of the controversial drilling technique.. Retrieved from content/uploads/2009/11/hydraulic-3.pdf 59

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