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Chapter 61 Properties of Gases Expand to completely fill their container Take the shape of their container Low density –Much less than solid or liquid state Compressible Mixtures of gases are always homogeneous Fluid

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Chapter 62 Gas Laws – Kinetic Molecular Theory 1.All matter is composed of tiny discrete particles called molecules 2.Molecules in a gas are in rapid constant motion and move in straight lines 3.Molecules of a gas are tiny compared with distances between gas molecules 4.There is little attraction between molecules of a gas

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Chapter 63 5.Molecules collide with each other, with energy being conserved in the collision 6.Temperature (T) is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the gas molecules

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Chapter 64 Pressure and Temperature (cont.)

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Chapter 65 Volume Relationships Law of combining volumes – when all measurements are made at same temperature and pressure, volumes of gaseous reactants and products are in small whole-number ratio

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Chapter 66 Avogadros hypothesis – equal volumes of gases at constant pressure and temperature have the same number of molecules

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Chapter 67 UNITS Pressure Temperature

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Chapter 68 Molar Volume Volume occupied by 1 mol of gas Standard temperature and pressure (STP) –1 atm pressure and 0°C –1 mole of gas has volume of 22.4 L

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Chapter 69 Talk about Density This is at STP

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Chapter 610 Boyles Law PV=PV

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Chapter 611 Talk about Lungs

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A gas is enclosed in a cylinder fitted with a piston. The volume of the gas is 2.00 L at atm. The piston is moved to increase the gas pressure to 5.15 atm. Which of the following is a reasonable value for the volume of the gas at the greater pressure? 0.20 L0.40 L1.00 L16.0 L A gas is enclosed in a 10.2-L tank at 1208 mmHg. (The mmHg is a pressure unit; 760 mmHg = 1 atm.) Which of the following is a reasonable value for the pressure when the gas is transferred to a 30.0-L tank? 300 mmHg400 mmHg3,600 mmHg 12,000 mmHg Exercise EXAMPLEBoyle's Law: Pressure-Volume Relationships

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A cylinder of oxygen has a volume of 2.25 L. The pressure of the gas is 1470 pounds per square inch (psi) at 20 °C. What volume will the oxygen occupy at standard atmospheric pressure (14.7 psi) assuming no temperature change? EXAMPLEBoyles Law: Pressure-Volume Relationships

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Chapter 614 EXAMPLE Boyles Law: Pressure-Volume Relationships continued A sample of air occupies 73.3 mL at 98.7 atm and 0 ºC. What volume will the air occupy at 4.02 atm and 0 ºC? Exercise 2 A sample of helium occupies 535 mL at 988 mmHg and 25 °C. If the sample is transferred to a 1.05-L flask at 25 °C, what will be the gas pressure in the flask? Exercise 3

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Chapter 615 Charless Law

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Chapter 616 Charles' Law V/T = V/T

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A balloon indoors, where the temperature is 27 °C, has a volume of 2.00 L. What would its volume be (a) in a hot room where the temperature is 47 °C, and (b) outdoors, where the temperature is –23 ºC? (Assume no change in pressure in either case.) EXAMPLE 6.15 Charless Law: Temperature-Volume Relationships

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Chapter 618 a.A sample of oxygen gas occupies a volume of 2.10 L at 25 °C. What volume will this sample occupy at 150 °C? (Assume no change in pressure.) b.A sample of hydrogen occupies 692 L at 602 °C. If the pressure is held constant, what volume will the gas occupy after being cooled to 23 °C? Exercise 6.15A At what Celsius temperature will the initial volume of oxygen in Exercise 6.15A occupy L? (Assume no change in pressure.) Exercise 6.15B EXAMPLE 6.15 Charless Law: Temperature-Volume Relationships continued

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Chapter 619 Ideal Gas Law PV = nRT P = pressure V = volume n = number of moles R = gas constant = L atm/mol K T = absolute temperature

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EXAMPLE 6.16 Ideal Gas Law Use the ideal gas law to calculate (a) the volume occupied by 2.00 mol of nitrogen gas at 244 K and.9500 atm pressure, and (b) the pressure exerted by mol of oxygen in a 15.0-L container at 303 K. Determine (a) the pressure exerted by mol of oxygen in an 18.0-L container at 313 K, and (b) the volume occupied by mol of nitrogen gas at 298 K and atm. Exercise 6.16A

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Chapter 621 Determine the volume of nitrogen gas produced from the decomposition of 130 g sodium azide (about the amount in a typical automobile airbag) at 25 °C and 1 atm. Exercise 6.16B EXAMPLE 6.16 Ideal Gas Law continued

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