Structure of the atmosphere Heat-trapping gases The greenhouse effect
Earths atmosphere is 372 miles thick (small compared to the size of the earth) Divided into four layers based on temperature (troposphere, tropopause, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere,) Weather happens in troposphere = layer closest to the earth Troposphere is the densest layer, holds 80% of water vapor
Atmosphere = the thin layer of gases that surrounds Earth Absorbs radiation and moderates climate Transports and recycles water and nutrients 78% nitrogen gas, 21% oxygen gas, 1% other gases Its four layers differ in temperature, density and composition Minute concentrations of permanent (remain at stable concentrations) and variable gases (varying concentrations) Human activity is changing the amounts of some gases
Turn to a partner and make a list of greenhouse gases
CO2 GAScarbon dioxide H2O VAPORwater vapor (humidity) CH4 GASmethane
Gas Global Warming Factor Concentration parts (ppb*) Carbon Dioxide CO 2 1379,000 Methane CH 4 211,760 Nitrous Oxide N 2 O 310320 Chlorofluorocarbons CFCs 5,000 to 14,000Less than 1 Ppb = parts per billion
http://www.sciencebuzz.org/sites/all/files_static/global_warming/greenhouse_effect.gif http://www.ecoslopes.com/wp- content/uploads/2009/03/greenhouse- effect-solutions-300x225.jpg The atmosphere = without it, the Earths temperature would be much colder Earths atmosphere, clouds, land, ice, and water absorb 70% of incoming solar radiation
Over the past 425,000 years, cool periods have coincided with times when the CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere was lower. When there is less CO 2 in the atmosphere, the greenhouse effect is reduced and the world cools. The blue and red line indicates the variation in average global temperature compared with the 1961–1990 average. The green line shows the concentration of CO 2 in the atmosphere. (Pay close attention to the right-hand edge of the graph.) This graph shows four eras when the world was cooler than it is today. These are separated by brief warm periods, like the one we are now in. CO2 causes temperatures to rise
During respiration, energy stored in a glucose is used to perform cellular activities. sugar + oxygen CO2 + water + energy (to do work) During photosynthesis, energy from the sun converts carbon dioxide and water into glucose, an energy source. Oxygen is a byproduct of this process. water + CO2 + solar energy sugar + oxygen
Student represents Ball of yarn represents Sources and sinks Carbon RULES No one can get the ball twice until everyone has had it at least once.
Write a short story from the perspective of a carbon atom as it travels through the carbon cycle. List the places you travel and how you move from place to place until you return to where you started.