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# Ideal gas Assumptions Particles that form the gas have no volume and consist of single atoms. Intermolecular interactions are vanishingly small.

## Presentation on theme: "Ideal gas Assumptions Particles that form the gas have no volume and consist of single atoms. Intermolecular interactions are vanishingly small."— Presentation transcript:

Ideal gas Assumptions Particles that form the gas have no volume and consist of single atoms. Intermolecular interactions are vanishingly small.

Ideal gas Equations of state PV=NkT P= pressure V= volume N=number of particles of gas k= Boltzmann Constant= 1.38x10-23J/K K=Kelvin temperature

Ideal gas Equations of state PV=nRT P= pressure V= volume n=number of moles of gas R= Universal Gas Constant= K=Kelvin temperature

Ideal gas Avogadro’s number

Ideal gas Relationship between Avogadro’s number, Universal Gas constant, and Boltzmann constant.

Kinetic –molecular theory
Many molecules are in a container and they behave like point particles.(No volume) The molecules move around randomly, and obey Newton’s laws. The only interactions that the molecules undergo are elastic collisions with each other and the walls of the container.

Kinetic –molecular theory
Pressure is a result of the molecules colliding with the walls of the container. As the number of molecules or thir average speed increases, the pressure increases.

Kinetic –molecular theory
Results of kinetic-molecular theory.

Kinetic –molecular theory
Results of kinetic-molecular theory.

Kinetic –molecular theory
Internal energy of an ideal monatomic gas..

Kinetic –molecular theory
Other gas laws – the amount of gas does not change

Laws of Thermodynamics
The first Law of Termodynamics – If U is the internal energy of a system, than DU=Q-W. If Q>0 System gains heat If Q<0 System loses heat If W>0 Work is done by the system If W<0 Work is done on the system

Laws of Thermodynamics
The first Law of Thermodynamics – If U is the internal energy of a system, than DU=Q-W

Table 18-1 Signs of Q and W Q positive System gains heat Q negative System loses heat W positive Work done by system W negative Work done on system

Figure 18-1 The Internal Energy of a System

Figure 18-2 Work and Internal Energy

Laws of Thermodynamics
At constant pressure, the work done by or on a system is W=PΔV The area under a PV curve represents work. If a process occurs at a constant volume, the work done during the process is 0.

Figure 18-5 A Constant-Pressure Process

Example 18-2 Work Area

Laws of Thermodynamics
Isothermal processes – these are processes that take place at a constant temperature. PV=constant

Figure 18-8 Isotherms on a PV Plot

Laws of Thermodynamics
Adiabatic processes – these are processes that take place without heat entering or leaving the system.

Figure 18-9 An Isothermal Expansion

Figure 18-10a An Adiabatic Process

Figure 18-10b An Adiabatic Process

Conceptual Checkpoint 18-2 Page 578 Which is the adiabatic curve?

Figure 18-14 A Comparison Between Isotherms and Adiabats

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