# Introduction to Gases Chemistry2 nd semester. Properties All gases share some physical properties: Pressure (P) Volume (V) Temperature (T) Number of moles.

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Introduction to Gases Chemistry2 nd semester

Properties All gases share some physical properties: Pressure (P) Volume (V) Temperature (T) Number of moles (n) These properties combine to describe the behavior of gases using the gas laws

Pressure Pressure is the amount of force per given amount of area (P=F/area) Greater forces exert greater pressure When the area over which the pressure is exerted is decreased, the pressure is increased

Pressure Cont. Pressure is the result of collisions of gas molecules and the sides of a container

Applications Why is there more pressure on you the deeper you move in a body of water? Why is it harder to breathe when youre up in a mountain?

Applications Why is there more pressure on you the deeper you move in a body of water? There is more water pushing down on you. Greater force means greater pressure Why is it harder to breathe when youre up in a mountain? The air is thinner which means there is less atmospheric pressure because there is less air pushing down on you

Atmospheric Pressure The pressure exerted by the atmosphere on the earth Decreases as you move up About 15 psi (pounds per square inch) at sea level

Standard Pressure normal atmospheric pressure at sea level Standard Pressure: 1.00 atm (atmospheres) 101.3 kPa (kilopascals) 760 mmHg (millimeters of mercury) 760 torr

Standard temperature Absolute temperature is measured in Kelvin (K) 0 K is absolute zero K = °C + 273 °C = K – 273 Standard temperature: 273 K

Ways to measure pressure Barometer

Ways to measure pressure Manometer

Kinetic Theory of Gases A set of ideas (5 points) used to describe and explain the behavior of gases Any gas that behaves exactly in this manner is called an ideal gas There are not any ideal gases in real life. Real gases behave much like ideal gases unless they are under high pressure and temp.

Point One Gases are composed of tiny particles called molecules Molecules are so far apart that gases are mostly empty space Because of this, gases can be easily compressed and mixed

Point Two Gas molecules posses kinetic energy (KE=1/2mv 2 ) Gas molecules are in constant, random, straight line motion

Point Three Collisions between gas molecules and each other or the container are elastic No kinetic energy is changed into another form of energy (like heat) The pressure of an enclosed gas will NOT change unless its temperature or volume changes

Point Four Molecules of a gas are not attracted to or repulsed by each other They move independently of each other

Point Five Individual molecules of a gas are moving at different speeds because they have different kinetic energies The average kinetic energy (speed) is directly proportional to the temperature of a gas

Daltons Law of Partial Pressure The total pressure of a mixture of gases is the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases P T = P 1 + P 2 + P 3 +.......

Effusion Effusion is the movement of gas molecules through an extremely tiny opening into a region of lower pressure helium escaping a balloon air leaking from a tire

Diffusion Diffusion is the tendency of molecules to move toward areas of lower concentration until the concentration is uniform throughout the system mixing of gases

Grahams Law of Effusion Molecules of lower molar mass diffuse and effuse faster.

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