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Chemical Equations Chapter 8 Outline I.Chemical Reactions A.Evidence B.Balancing II.Types of Reactions A.Combination/Synthesis i.Combustion B.Decomposition.

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Presentation on theme: "Chemical Equations Chapter 8 Outline I.Chemical Reactions A.Evidence B.Balancing II.Types of Reactions A.Combination/Synthesis i.Combustion B.Decomposition."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chemical Equations Chapter 8 Outline I.Chemical Reactions A.Evidence B.Balancing II.Types of Reactions A.Combination/Synthesis i.Combustion B.Decomposition C.Single Replacement D.Double Replacement

2 2 C 8 H 16 (l) + 25 O 2 (g) 16 CO 2 (g) + 18 H 2 O (l) + heat What happens to the octane molecule when it undergoes combustion?

3 Evidence for Chemical Reactions A gas is produced. A precipitate is formed. A permanent color change is observed. An energy change occurs.

4 Chemical Equations Must be balanced to satisfy Law of conservation of mass State Designations –(g) gas –(l) liquid –(s) solid –(aq) aqueous

5 What information is shown in a balanced chemical equation? Zn (s) +2 HCl (aq) ZnCl 2 (aq) +H 2 (g) 1 molecule2 molecules1 formula unit1 molecule 1 atom Zn2 atoms H 2 atoms Cl 1 atom Zn 2 atoms Cl 2 atoms H 1 mole2 moles1 mole 65.38 g2(36.46 g)136.28 g2.02 g 138.30 g=

6 Diatomic Elements

7 Classifying Reactions by what Atoms Do

8 Combination/Synthesis A + Z AZ

9 Combination Reaction

10 Example – Combination Reactions Solid magnesium oxide combines with carbon dioxide gas to produce solid magnesium carbonate. What is the sum of the coefficients?

11 Example – Combination Reactions Lead filings are heated with phosphorus powder, P, to yield lead(IV) phosphide solid. What is the coefficient of the lead?

12 Example – Combination Reactions Chromium metal is heated with nitrogen gas to give chromium(III) nitride solid. What is the coefficient of the product?

13 Example – Combination Reactions Combustion Reactions Lithium metal is heated in the presence of oxygen gas. What is the formula of the product? A.LiO B.Li 2 O C.Li D.O 2 E.LiO 2

14 Example – Combination Reactions Combustion Reactions Copper metal is heated with oxygen gas to produce copper(I) oxide. What is the sum of the coefficients of the reactants?

15 Example – Combination Reactions Combustion Reactions Chlorine gas is heated with oxygen gas to produce dichlorine trioxide gas. What is the coefficient of the product?

16 Example – Combination Reactions Combustion Reactions Propane gas, C 3 H 8, is used in gas barbecues. Write the balanced combustion reaction. A.C 3 H 8 (g) + O 2 (g) 3 CO (g) + 4 H 2 (g) B. C 3 H 8 (g) + O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + H 2 O (g) C. 2 C 3 H 8 (g) + 10 O 2 (g) 6 CO 2 (g) + 8 H 2 O (g) D. C 3 H 8 (g) + 5 O 2 (g) 3 CO 2 (g) + 4 H 2 O (g) E. C 3 H 8 (g) + O 2 (g) no reaction

17 Example – Combination Reactions Combustion Reactions The liquid ethanol, CH 3 CH 2 OH, is often used to warm desserts by flambéing. How many moles of ethanol are needed to balance the chemical reaction?

18 Classifying Reactions by what Atoms Do Decomposition AZ A + Z

19 Decomposition

20 Example – Redox Reactions Decomposition Reactions Hydrogen peroxide is used to clean wounds. It is stored in brown bottles to prevent its decomposition into water and oxygen gas. What is the coefficient of the hydrogen peroxide?

21 Example – Redox Reactions Decomposition Reactions Silver bicarbonate decomposes by heating to silver carbonate powder, water, and carbon dioxide gas. What is the sum of the coefficients?

22 Example – Redox Reactions Decomposition Reactions Silver carbonate further decomposes upon heating to silver oxide and carbon dioxide. What is the sum of the coefficients now?

23 Example – Redox Reactions Decomposition Reactions Stannous chlorate decomposes upon heating to yield stannous chloride and oxygen gas. What is the balanced chemical equation? A.Sn(ClO 3 ) 2 (s) SnCl 2 (s) + 3 O 2 (g) B.Sn(ClO 2 ) 2 (s) SnCl 2 (s) + 4 O 2 (g) C.Sn(ClO 2 ) 2 (s) no rxn D.SnCl 2 (s) + 3 O 2 (g) Sn(ClO 3 ) 2 (s)

24 Copper(II) oxide reacts with ammonia (NH 3 ) to yield copper, nitrogen gas, and water. Write a balanced equation for this reaction.

25 Lead(II) nitrate reacts with potassium chromate to form lead(II) chromate (yellow ppt.) and potassium nitrate. Hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium carbonate to form carbon dioxide, sodium chloride, and water

26 Zinc metal reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce zinc chloride and hydrogen gas. Potassium chlorate when heated, decomposes to form potassium chloride and oxygen gas.

27 Hexane(C 6 H 14 ) burns in oxygen gas to form carbon dioxide and water. Vinegar(acetic acid) reacts with baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) to produce carbon dioxide gas, sodium acetate, and water. Ammonia reacts with oxygen gas to form nitrogen monoxide and water.

28 Iron(III) chloride reacts with ammonium hydroxide to form iron(III) hydroxide (brown ppt.) and ammonium chloride. Barium hydroxide and ammonium chloride react to form ammonia (NH 3 ), water, and barium chloride.

29 Some more examples N 2 + H 2 NH 3 Be 2 C + H 2 O Be(OH) 2 + CH 4 HCl + CaCO 3 CaCl 2 + H 2 O + CO 2 C 2 H 6 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O

30 Classifying Reactions by what Atoms Do Single Displacement A + BZ AZ + B

31 Single Replacement

32

33 Example – Redox Reactions Single Replacement Reactions Aluminum wire is placed in a cupric nitrate solution. What is the sum of the coefficients? Activity Series of Metals Li K Ba Sr Ca Na Mg Al Mn Zn Cr Fe Cd Co Ni Sn Pb (H) Sb Cu Ag Pd Pt Hg Au

34 Example – Redox Reactions Single Replacement Reactions Copper wire is placed in a solution of magnesium nitrate. What is the balanced chemical equation? A.Cu (s) + Mg(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) Mg (s) + Cu(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) B.Cu (s) + Mg(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) MgCu (s) + NO 2 (g) C.Cu (s) + Mg(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) MgCu (s) + 2 NO 3 - (aq) D.Cu 2+ (s) + Mg(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) Mg 2+ (aq) + Cu(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) E.No reaction Activity Series of Metals Li K Ba Sr Ca Na Mg Al Mn Zn Cr Fe Cd Co Ni Sn Pb (H) Sb Cu Ag Pd Pt Hg Au

35 Example – Redox Reactions Single Replacement Reactions Magnesium ribbon is placed in a hydrochloric acid solution. What is the coefficient in front of the magnesium? Activity Series of Metals Li K Ba Sr Ca Na Mg Al Mn Zn Cr Fe Cd Co Ni Sn Pb (H) Sb Cu Ag Pd Pt Hg Au

36 Example – Redox Reactions Single Replacement Reactions A piece of soft, gray lithium metal is added to water. What is the coefficient of lithium? Activity Series of Metals Li K Ba Sr Ca Na Mg Al Mn Zn Cr Fe Cd Co Ni Sn Pb (H) Sb Cu Ag Pd Pt Hg Au

37 Example – Redox Reactions Single Replacement Reactions Manganese chips are added to nitric acid. What gas is formed? Activity Series of Metals Li K Ba Sr Ca Na Mg Al Mn Zn Cr Fe Cd Co Ni Sn Pb (H) Sb Cu Ag Pd Pt Hg Au

38 Cu + AgNO 3

39 Cr + NiCl 2

40 Cr + Zn(NO 3 ) 2

41 Zn + HCl

42 Fe + HCl

43 Classifying Reactions by what Atoms Do Double displacement AX + BZ AZ + BX Precipitation (solubility rules) Gas formation (H 2 S, CO 2, NH 3, SO 2 ) Slightly ionizable substance (weak acid/weak base) Neutralization (special type of double displacement reaction) HX (aq) +BOH (aq) BX +H 2 O (l)

44 Double Displacement

45 Predicting Reactions Double Displacement

46 Fig. 9-13, p. 256

47 Common Strong Acids and Bases Common Strong Acids Hydrochloric acidHCl (aq) Hydrobromic acidHBr (aq) Hydroiodic acidHI (aq) Perchloric acidHClO 4 (aq) Chloric acidHClO 3 (aq) Nitric acidHNO 3 (aq) Sulfuric acidH 2 SO 4 (aq) Common Strong Bases Lithium hydroxideLiOH (aq) Sodium hydroxideNaOH (aq) Potassium hydroxideKOH (aq) Strontium hydroxideSr(OH) 2 (aq) Barium hydroxideBa(OH) 2 (aq) Calcium hydroxideCa(OH) 2 (aq)

48 Example – Ion Exchange Reactions What is the precipitate when lead(II) nitrate reacts with lithium chloride?

49 Example – Ion Exchange Reactions What gas is formed when sodium sulfite reacts with hydrobromic acid? A.H 2 SO 3 (g) B.H 2 S (g) C.SO 3 (g) D.SO 2 (g)

50 Example – Ion Exchange Reactions When aqueous solutions of sodium sulfite and potassium bromide are mixed the products are: A.NaBr and K 2 SO 3 B.K 2 SO 3 and Na 2 Br C.NaK and SO 3 Br D.No reaction

51 Example – Ion Exchange Reactions Aqueous sodium acetate is mixed with hydrobromic acid. What is formed? A.Precipitate B.Gas C.Slightly ionizable substance D.No reaction

52 Example – Ion Exchange Reactions When aqueous solutions of sodium iodide and nitric acid are mixed the products are: A.NaI and HNO 3 B.NaNO 3 and NaI C.NaH and INO 3 D.No reaction

53 Example – Ion Exchange Reactions When sulfuric acid and aqueous lithium hydroxide are mixed one of the products is A.Water B.Lithium hydride C.Sulfur trioxide D.Lithium sulfide E.No reaction

54 Na 2 S + ZnCl 2 Na 2 S + ZnCl 2 2 NaCl + ZnS(s)

55 Mg(NO 3 ) 2 + NaOH Mg(NO 3 ) 2 + 2 NaOH Mg(OH) 2 (s)+ 2 NaNO 3

56 AgNO 3 + Na 2 SO 4 AgNO 3 + Na 2 SO 4 NR

57 K 2 CO 3 + HCl K 2 CO 3 + 2 HCl (H 2 CO 3 + 2 KCl) H 2 O + CO 2 + 2 KCl

58 NH 4 Cl + KOH NH 4 Cl + KOH (NH 4 OH + KCl) NH 3 +HOH+ KCl

59 HNO 3 + NaC 2 H 3 O 2 HNO 3 (aq) + NaC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) + NaNO 3 (aq)

60 HClO 4 + NaOH HClO 4 + NaOH H 2 O(l) + NaClO 4


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