13Single Phase Gas Flow Erosional Velocity Higher velocities will cause erosion of the pipe interior over a long period of time. The upper limit of the gas velocity is usually calculated approximately from the following equation:Usually, an acceptable operational velocity is 50% of the above.
14Single Phase Gas Flow Pipeline Efficiency In Practice, even for single-phase gas flow, some water or condensate may be present. Some solids may be also present. Therefore the gas flow rate must be multiply by an efficiency factor (E).A pipeline with E greater than 0.9 is usually considered “clean” .
15Single Phase Gas Flow Non-Iterative Equations Several equations for gas flow have been derived from General Equation. These equations differ only in friction factor relation assumed:Gas Transmission Pipline1. AGA equation2. Weymouth equation3. Panhandle A equation4. Panhandle B equationGas Distribution Pipeline1. IGT equation2. Spitzglass equation3. Mueller equation4. Fritzsche equation
16Single Phase Gas Flow AGA Equation The transmission factor is defined as: First, F is calculated for the fully turbulent zone. Next, F is calculated based on the smooth pipe law. Finally, the smaller of the two values of the transmission factor is used.
17Single Phase Gas Flow Weymouth Equation The Weymouth equation is used for high pressure, high flow rate, and large diameter gas gathering systems. The Weymouth friction factor is:
18Single Phase Gas Flow Panhandle A Equation The Panhandle A Equation was developed for use in large diameter natural gas pipelines, incorporating an efficiency factor for Reynolds numbers in the range of 5 to 11 million. In this equation, the pipe roughness is not used. The Panhandle A friction factor is:
19Single Phase Gas Flow Panhandle B Equation The Panhandle B Equation is most applicable to large diameter, high pressure transmission lines. In fully turbulent flow, it is found to be accurate for values of Reynolds number in the range of 4 to 40 million. The Panhandle B friction factor is:
20Single Phase Gas Flow Gas Transmission Equations A. Comparison of the calculated Output Pressure by AGA, Colebrook, Weymouth and Panhandle equations: Figure 2.5 B. Comparison of the calculated Flow rate by AGA, Colebrook, Weymouth and Panhandle equations: Figure 2.6 We therefore conclude that the most conservative flow equation that predicts the highest pressure drop is the Weymouth equation and the least conservative flow equation is Panhandle A.
21Single Phase Gas Flow IGT Equation The IGT equation proposed by the Institute of Gas Technology is also known as the IGT distribution equation:
22Single Phase Gas Flow Spitzglass Equation The Spitzglass equation originally was used in fuel gas piping calculations. This equation has two version A. Low pressure (less than 1 psig): B. High pressure (more than 1 psig):
23Single Phase Gas Flow Mueller and Fritzsche Equation The Mueller equation is: The Fritzsche formula, developed in Germany in 1908, has found extensive use in compressed air and gas piping: