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WHAT GOVERNS THE WAY THAT GASES, IN OUR ATMOSPHERE, BEHAVE?

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Presentation on theme: "WHAT GOVERNS THE WAY THAT GASES, IN OUR ATMOSPHERE, BEHAVE?"— Presentation transcript:

1 WHAT GOVERNS THE WAY THAT GASES, IN OUR ATMOSPHERE, BEHAVE?

2 CHARLES LAW Molecules of gas at a fixed pressure and temperature, vibrate sufficiently to occupy a fixed volume

3 Warm CHARLES LAW

4 Warm Increased molecular vibration, spacing increases CHARLES LAW

5 Warm Volume Increases Increased molecular vibration, spacing increases CHARLES LAW

6 Cool Warm Volume Increases Increased molecular vibration, spacing increases CHARLES LAW

7 Cool Warm Volume Increases Increased molecular vibration, spacing increases Decreased molecular vibration, spacing decreases CHARLES LAW

8 Cool Warm Volume Increases Volume Decreases Increased molecular vibration, spacing increases Decreased molecular vibration, spacing decreases CHARLES LAW

9 Cool Warm Volume Increases Volume Decreases Increased molecular vibration, spacing increases Decreased molecular vibration, spacing decreases CHARLES LAW If the atmospheric pressure is held constant, hot gases expand to occupy a bigger volume and cold gases contract to occupy a smaller volume.

10 Cool Warm Volume Increases Volume DecreasesIncreased molecular vibration, spacing increases Decreased molecular vibration, spacing decreases V=k 2.T At constant Pressure CHARLES LAW

11 Cool Warm Volume Increases Volume Decreases Increased molecular vibration, spacing increases Decreased molecular vibration, spacing decreases V=k2.T CHARLES LAW V=k 2.T At constant Pressure

12 M =1.0 BOYLES LAW Molecules of gas at a fixed pressure and temperature, vibrate sufficiently to occupy a fixed volume

13 M =1.0 BOYLES LAW Atmospheric Pressure Vibrating molecules of gas

14 M =1.0 M = 0.5 M = 1.0 BOYLES LAW Compress, squeeze, add weight

15 M = 0.5 M =1.0 M = 0.5 M = 1.0 BOYLES LAW Compress, squeeze, add weight Decompress, relax, reduce weight Increased Pressure Volume contracts Decreased Pressure Volume expands

16 M = 0.5 M =1.0 M = 0.5 M = 1.0 At constant temperature, the pressure exerted on a gas is inversely related to the volume the gas occupies – gases are compressible. BOYLES LAW

17 M = 0.5 M =1.0 M = 0.5 M = 1.0 P ….. VP…. V BOYLES LAW P = k 1 /V At constant Temperature

18 HOW ARE THESE LAWS GOING TO HELP TO MOVE MASS AND ENERGY IN THE ATMOSPERIC SYSTEM?

19 Air Filled Balloon EQUAL PRESSURE (ATMOSPHERIC)

20 Brick Higher Pressure Lower Pressure Air Flow Differences in pressures cause motion of the air

21 Air temperature Sensible heat flux from insolation = f(latitude,season)

22 V=k2.T At constant Pressure Air temperature Sensible heat flux from insolation = (latitude,season) Changes in temperature cause changes in volume occupied by air.

23 V=k2.T At constant Pressure P = k1/V At constant Temperature Air temperature Sensible heat flux from insolation = (latitude,season) Changes in temperature cause changes in volume occupied by air. Changes in volume occupied cause changes in pressure on air

24 V=k2.T At constant Pressure P = k1/V At constant Temperature Air temperature Sensible heat flux from insolation = (latitude,season) Changes in temperature cause changes in volume occupied by air. Changes in volume occupied cause changes in pressure on air Differences in pressure cause movements within the atmosphere

25 V=k2.T At constant Pressure P = k1/V At constant Temperature Air temperature Sensible heat flux from insolation = (latitude,season) Changes in temperature cause changes in volume occupied by air. Changes in volume occupied cause changes in pressure on air Temporal and spatial differences in insolation related to pressure that moves atmosphere Differences in pressure cause movements within the atmosphere

26 THE EQUATION OF STATE FOR AN IDEAL GAS. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER!

27 P = R. ρ. T P = Pressure on a gas R = Gas Constant ρ = Density of gas T = Temperature of gas

28 P = R. ρ. T P = Pressure on a gas R = Gas Constant ρ = Density of gas T = Temperature of gas ?

29 P = R. ρ. T P = Pressure on a gas R = Gas Constant ρ = Density of gas: ρ = Mass/Volume T = Temperature of gas

30 P = R. M/V. T P = Pressure on a gas R = Gas Constant ρ = Density of gas: ρ = Mass/Volume T = Temperature of gas

31 P = R. M. T V Charles Law: Fixed P, T and V directly related 9 = = If T rises to 3.0, then V must rise to 0.33 to Keep P constant at 9!

32 P = R. M. T V Boyles Law: Fixed T, P and V inversely related 3. 3 = = V. P = R. M. T Multiply both sides by V Pressure declines so volume occupied increases to keep T constant

33 P = R. ρ. T PRACTICAL APPLICATION We know that Atmospheric Pressure declines with altitude, so what can we expect to happen to Temperatures and the Density of the air as you climb a mountain or go up in an airplane?

34 P = R. ρ. T PRACTICAL APPLICATION We know that Atmospheric Pressure declines with altitude, so what can we expect to happen to Temperatures and the Density of the air as you climb a mountain or go up in an airplane? Should become colder and the atmosphere thinner!

35 P = R. ρ. T PRACTICAL APPLICATION We know that Atmospheric Pressure declines with altitude, so what can we expect to happen to Temperatures and the Density of the air as you climb a mountain or go up in an airplane? Normal Lapse Rate: Rate at which temperatures decline (increase) with increase (decrease) in altitude

36 P = R. ρ. T PRACTICAL APPLICATION We know that Atmospheric Pressure declines with altitude, so what can we expect to happen to Temperatures and the Density of the air as you climb a mountain or go up in an airplane? Normal Lapse Rate: Rate at which temperatures decline (increase) with increase (decrease) in altitude 6.5°C per Kilometer 3.6°F per 1000 ft.

37 4.392 km 0 km 15°C -13°C


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