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GAS EXCHANGE. HOW DO WE REMEMBER ALL THE LIFE PROCESSES? H.N.T.R.S.G.E.R.M.R WHICH ONES HAVE WE DISCUSSED IN GREATER DETAIL TO THIS POINT? NUTRITION &

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Presentation on theme: "GAS EXCHANGE. HOW DO WE REMEMBER ALL THE LIFE PROCESSES? H.N.T.R.S.G.E.R.M.R WHICH ONES HAVE WE DISCUSSED IN GREATER DETAIL TO THIS POINT? NUTRITION &"— Presentation transcript:

1 GAS EXCHANGE

2 HOW DO WE REMEMBER ALL THE LIFE PROCESSES? H.N.T.R.S.G.E.R.M.R WHICH ONES HAVE WE DISCUSSED IN GREATER DETAIL TO THIS POINT? NUTRITION & TRANSPORT WHATS NEXT ON THE LIST? R = RESPIRATION WHAT IS RESPIRATION? TWO TYPES CELLULAR RESPIRATION VS GAS EXCHANGE

3 GAS EXCHANGE CELLULAR RESPIRATION REMINDER

4 GAS EXCHANGE CELLULAR RESPIRATION REMINDER WHAT SUBSTANCE MUST BE PRESENT TO GO FROM GLYCOLYSIS TO THE REACTIONS INSIDE THE MITOCHONDRIA?? OXYGEN !!!

5 GAS EXCHANGE NOW, LETS TALK GAS EXCHANGE… GAS EXCHANGE DEF THE PHYSICAL METHODS ORGANISMS HAVE FOR OBTAINING OXYGEN FROM THEIR SURROUNDINGS, AND REMOVING EXCESS CARBON DIOXIDE FROM THEIR INSIDES BECAUSE OF THIS OVERLAP WITH OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE, THE TERM RESPIRATION IS INCLUSIVE OF BOTH CELLULAR RESPIRATION AND GAS EXCHANGE, BUT THESE ARE TWO DIFFERENT PROCESSES!!

6 GAS EXCHANGE BECAUSE OF THE SMALL SIZE OF GASES, THEY CAN EASILY DIFFUSE THROUGH MEMBRANES; HOWEVER, THIS IS DEPENDENT ON TWO FACTORS MOIST MEMBRANES (RESPIRATORY SURFACES) DIRECT CONTACT WITH THE ENVIRONMENT

7 GAS EXCHANGE RESPIRATORY SURFACES THE SURFACE (BOUNDARY) THROUGH WHICH GAS EXCHANGE TAKES PLACE

8 GAS EXCHANGE RESPIRATORY SURFACE MUST BE THIN-WALLED SO DIFFUSION ACROSS IT CAN OCCUR RAPIDLY IT MUST BE MOIST BECAUSE THE OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE MUST BE IN SOLUTION IT MUST BE IN CONTACT WITH A SOURCE OF OXYGEN THAT EXISTS IN THE SURROUNDINGS IN MOST MULTI-CELLULAR ORGANISMS, IT MUST BE IN CONTACT WITH THE TRANSPORT SYSTEM THAT CARRIES DISSOLVED MATERIALS TO AND FROM THE CELLS OF THE ORGANISM

9 GAS EXCHANGE GAS EXCHANGE IN PROTISTS DO THEY NEED A RESPIRATORY SYSTEM?

10 GAS EXCHANGE GAS EXCHANGE IN PROTISTS THEY CAN RELY ON SIMPLE DIFFUSION ACROSS THEIR CELL MEMBRANE. WHAT IS THE RESPIRATORY SURFACE IN PROTISTS? WHY MUST PROTISTS LIVE CONTINUOUSLY IN WATER?

11 GAS EXCHANGE GAS EXCHANGE IN HYDRAS DO THEY NEED A RESPIRATORY SYSTEM? WHY DONT THEY NEED A RESPIRATORY SYSTEM? HOW DOES THE OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE MOVE IN AND OUT? WHAT IS THE RESPIRATORY SURFACE OF THE HYDRA? WHERE MUST HYDRAS LIVE?

12 GAS EXCHANGE GAS EXCHANGE IN THE EARTHWORM? DO EARTHWORMS HAVE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM? EVER WONDER WHY EARTHWORMS ARE SO SLIMY? THEY SECRETE A SPECIAL MUCUS TO CONSTANTLY KEEP THEIR SKIN MOIST!! (HINT AT SOMETHING??) THE SKIN IS THE RESPIRATORY SURFACE FOR THE EARTHWORM WHY DO EARTHWORMS LIVE IN THE EARTH? WHAT HAPPENS WHEN IT RAINS? WHEN IT STOPS?

13 GAS EXCHANGE GAS EXCHANGE IN THE EARTHWORM THE GASES DIFFUSE DIRECTLY INTO/OUT OF THE BLOOD OF THE EARTHWORM (TURNING THE BLOOD RED) WHY IS AN EARTHWORMS BLOOD RED?

14 GAS EXCHANGE GAS EXCHANGE IN THE GRASSHOPPER DO GRASSHOPPERS HAVE RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS? CAN THE SKIN BE THE RESPIRATORY SURFACE? INSECTS EXOSKELETONS ARE MADE OF CHITIN…ANYONE REMEMBER WHAT THAT IS? HOW DOES THE GAS GET IN? SPIRACLES + TRACHEAL TUBES + AIR SACS

15 GAS EXCHANGE GAS EXCHANGE IN THE GRASSHOPPER SPIRACLES OPENINGS IN THE EXOSKELETON TO ALLOW GASES IN TRACHEAL TUBES TUBES FOR THE GAS TO TRAVEL WITHIN THE BODY THEY BRANCH AND TRAVEL THROUGHOUT THE GRASSHOPPER BODY CARRYING GAS DIRECTLY TO THE CELLS AIR SACS BALLOON LIKE STRUCTURES THAT HELP PUMP THE AIR IN AND OUT OF THE TUBES

16 GAS EXCHANGE HOW COME WE DONT DO GAS EXCHANGE THROUGH OUR SKIN LIKE THE EARTHWORM, OR THROUGH SPIRACLES AND TUBES LIKE THE GRASSHOPPER? THE SIMPLE ANSWER IS WE NEED WAY MORE OXYGEN THEN THESE SYSTEMS CAN PROVIDE…SO WE NEED A MORE COMPLEX SYSTEM BEFORE HUMANS, THOUGH, JUST A QUICK NOTE ABOUT COMPLEX ANIMALS THAT LIVE IN WATER FULL TIME…EXAMPLES???

17 GAS EXCHANGE GILLS VERY SPECIAL STRUCTURE THAT ALLOWS CERTAIN ANIMALS TO ABSORB OXYGEN DISSOLVED IN WATER MUST STAY MOIST!! WHAT HAPPENS WHEN WE PULL A FISH OUT OF WATER?

18 GAS EXCHANGE GILLS HAVE TREMENDOUS SURFACE AREA…WHY???

19 GAS EXCHANGE GAS EXCHANGE IN HUMANS DO HUMANS HAVE A RESPIRATORY SYSTEM? LETS BREAK IT DOWN TO UNDERSTAND HOW IT WORKS…

20 GAS EXCHANGE GAS EXCHANGE IN HUMANS EXCHANGE PATHWAY NOSE / NASAL CAVITY PHARYNX LARYNX TRACHEA BRONCHI BRONCHIOLES ALVEOLI

21 GAS EXCHANGE GAS EXHCHANGE IN HUMANS NOSE / NASAL CAVITY AIR ENTERS HERE LINED WITH HAIR AND MUCUS…WHY?? PHARYNX THROAT NASAL AND ORAL CAVITY MEET HERE NASAL AND ORAL CAVITY MEET HERE WHY CAN YOU BREATH THROUGH YOUR MOUTH

22 GAS EXCHANGE GAS EXCHANGE IN HUMANS LARYNX VOICE BOX AIR RUSHING PASSED MAKES CORDS VIBRATE LIKE GUITAR STRINGS, CREATING SOUND WHY DONT YOU TALK WITH FOOD IN YOUR MOUTH??

23 GAS EXCHANGE GAS EXCHANGE IN HUMANS TRACHEA A.K.A. WIND-PIPE CONNECTION TO LUNGS BRONCHI TRACHEA SPLITS IN TWO TUBES, ONE FOR EACH LUNG BRONCHIOLES BRONCHI SPLIT INTO MANY TINY BRANCHES WHY DO YOU THINK IT IS IMPORTANT TO HAVE MANY BRANCHES?

24 GAS EXCHANGE GAS EXCHANGE IN HUMANS ALVEOLI TINY GRAPE LIKE SACS WHERE GAS EXCHANGE ACTUALLY TAKES PLACE SURROUNDED BY CAPILLARIES…WHY?

25 GAS EXCHANGE GAS EXCHANGE IN HUMANS WHERE ARE THE LUNGS IN ALL OF THIS? THE LUNGS ARE THE SACS THAT CONTAIN ALL OF THESE STRUCTURES THEY ARE SURROUNDED BY A SPECIAL MEMBRANE CALLED THE PLEURA

26 GAS EXCHANGE GAS EXCHANGE IN HUMANS HOW DOES THE AIR GET IN AND OUT OF THE LUNGS? B R E A T H I N G B R E A T H I N G

27 GAS EXCHANGE GAS EXCHANGE IN HUMANS BREATHING DIAPHRAGM LONG FLAT MUSCLE THAT CONTROLS INHALATION & EXHALATION

28 GAS EXCHANGE GAS EXCHANGE IN HUMANS IN SUMMARY BREATHING EXTERNAL RESPIRATION (GAS EXCHANGE IN LUNGS) INTERNAL RESPIRATION (CELLULAR RESPIRATION)

29 GAS EXCHANGE GAS EXCHANGE IN HUMANS DISORDERS/DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM ASTHMA BRONCHITIS EMPHYSEMA PNEUMONIA LUNG CANCER

30 GAS EXCHANGE RANDOM REVIEW QUESTION… HOW DO PLANTS PERFORM GAS EXCHANGE?? STOMATES & GUARD CELLS!!!

31 GAS EXCHANGE HARD TO BELIEVE, BUT WHEN YOU EXHALE THAT HAS SOMETHING IN COMMON WITH WHEN YOU URINATE… WHAT COULD THAT BE? COME BACK TO CLASS TO FIND OUT…EXCRETION IS NEXT!!


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