Presentation on theme: "Gas Stoichiometry Molar Volume of an Ideal Gas"— Presentation transcript:
1 Gas Stoichiometry Molar Volume of an Ideal Gas Standard Temperature & Pressure (STP)Using these with the Ideal Gas Law
2 Using Stoichiometry and Gas Laws Calculate the volume of oxygen gas (O2) produced at 1.00 atm and 25oC by the incomplete decomposition of 10.5 g of potassium chlorate: 2KClO3 2KCl + 3O2To solve the problem, we use what we know about moles and the ideal gas law:Convert grams of KClO3 to molesUse a mole ratio to determine moles of O2Calculate the volume of O2 using the ideal gas law1) 10.5 g KClO3 x 1 mol KClO3 = mol KClO3122.6 g KClO33) Use the ideal gas law: PV = nRTP = 1.00 atm n = molV = ? T = 25oC 298 KV = (0.128 x x 298) = 3.13 L1.002) mol KClO3 x 3 mol O2 = mol O22 mol KClO3
3 STP: Standard Temperature and Pressure 1 mole of an ideal gas at 0oC (273 K) and 1 atm has a volume of 22.4 LThis volume is called the molar volume of an ideal gas.STP = the conditions of 0oC and 1 atmV = nRT = (1.00 mol)( )(273 K) = 22.4 LP atm1 mol of ANY ideal gas has a volume of 22.4 L at STP:Equivalence statement: mol = 22.4 L (STP)
4 Calculating using STPA sample of nitrogen gas has a volume of 1.75L at STP. How many moles of N2 are present?We can take a shortcut to the ideal gas law by using the molar volume of an ideal gas at STP:1.000 mol = 22.4 L (STP)SO…1.75 L x mol N2 = mol N222.4 L N2
5 Reactions Involving Gases at STP Quicklime (CaO) is produced by heating calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Calculate the volume of CO2 produced at STP from the decomposition of 152 g of CaCO3 according to the reaction: CaCO3 CaO + CO2Step 1: Convert the mass of CaCO3 to moles152 g CaCO3 x 1 mol CaCO3 = 1.52 mol CaCO3100.1 g CaCO3Step 3: Use the molar volume of an ideal gas at STP to determine volume of CO21.52 mol CO2 x 22.4 L CO2 = 34.1 L CO21 mol CO2Step 2: Determine moles of CO2 using a mole ratio1.0 mol CaCO3 x 1 mol CO2 = 1.52 mol CO21 mol CaCO3
6 Gas Stoichiometry Practice Problems Calcium oxide can be used to “scrub” carbon dioxide from air:CaO + CO2 CaCO3What mass of CO2 could be absorbed by 1.25 g of CaO?What volume would this CO2 occupy?For the reaction 4Al + 3O2 2Al2O3 What volume of oxygen gas at STP would be needed to react completely with 1.55 g of aluminum?An ideal gas has a volume of 50.0 mL at 100oC and a pressure of 690 torr. Calculate the volume of this sample of gas at STP.A gaseous mixture contains 6.25 g of He and 4.97 g of Ne. What volume does the mixture occupy at STP?Using the unbalanced equation: Na + Cl2 NaCl What volume of chlorine gas, measured at STP, is necessary for the complete reaction of 4.81 g of sodium metal?