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Application of the Law of Conservation of Mass to oil and gas reservoirs (Original hydrocarbon mass)-(produced hydrocarbon mass)=(remaining hydrocarbon mass)

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Understand reservoir performance Identify drive mechanism Predict future performance Estimate OGIP Predict productions rates/pressure decline Estimate ultimate recovery

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GRM-Engler-09 Gas property, f(T,P, ) Measured pressure Cumulative gas Production @ P

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1. Collect data: a)Initial reservoir pressure b)Various reservoir pressures throughout the life of the well c)Associated cumulative production at each pressure 2. Determine z-factor for each pressure 3. Calculate P/z 4. Plot P/z versus G P 5. Draw a straight line through the data points. 6. Extrapolate the straight line to P/z = 0 7. Obtain estimate of OGIP @ P/z=0: G p must equal G 8. Estimate ultimate recovery @ abandonment pressure

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P (psia)G p (MMscf)zP/z 400000.85000 35002.460.734795 30004.920.664545 25007.880.64167 200011.20.553636 Step 1Step 2Step 3 Step 4Step 5Step 6 Step 7 Step 8

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Water drive reservoir vs. gas expansion Abnormally pressured reservoirs (formation compressibility) Pressure measurements/calculations Low permeability Retrograde gas reservoir

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GRM-Engler-09 Geopressured component Water drive component Gas injection Gas in solution

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Cumulative water influx, rcf Cumulative water production, stb GRM-Engler-09 RF (water drive) < RF (depletion) 45 to 75% >75%

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p/z GpGp (p/z) i Gas expansion + Formation compaction + Water expansion Overestimate of G GRM-Engler-09 Where,

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