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CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations Pipeline Emergencies 1 Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved. Pipeline Emergencies.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations Pipeline Emergencies 1 Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved. Pipeline Emergencies."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations Pipeline Emergencies 1 Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved. Pipeline Emergencies 101 Awareness Level Training

2 CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations Pipeline Emergencies 2 Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved. Objectives Basic overview of Pipeline Operations and Pipeline Incidents including basic operations, incident recognition and identification, and tactics. Keeping responders safe

3 CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations Pipeline Emergencies 3 Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved. The Pipeline Transportation Chain …. Pipelines and piping systems are the safest and second largest method of hazardous materials transportation within the United States and Canada All piping systems are based upon the following principles: A material is inserted or injected into a pipe The product is moved from this origination point to a pre-specified destination The product is ultimately removed from the pipeline at its destination point

4 CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations Pipeline Emergencies 4 Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved. Pipeline Transportation Chain

5 CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations Pipeline Emergencies 5 Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved. Crude Oil Pipelines… Crude oil is petroleum taken directly out of the ground from both on-shore and off-shore production facilities The exact composition of this produced fluid varies depending upon where in the world the crude oil was produced Crude oil may also have a high concentration of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) Commonly referred to as a sour crude, exposures to low concentrations of this toxic gas can result in death

6 CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations Pipeline Emergencies 6 Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved. Crude Oil Pipelines… Gathering lines are small pipelines, usually 2 to 8-inches diameter They move the crude oil mixture from individual wellheads and production locations to an oil processing facility Depending upon the location of the production site and the type of crude oil being produced, the crude oil is then shipped through larger trunk lines or by cargo tank trucks to a refinery or shipping terminal Onshore Offshore platforms North slope of Alaska

7 CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations Pipeline Emergencies 7 Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved. Liquid Pipelines … The most common liquids transported by pipelines are refined petroleum products gasoline Aviation gas Jet fuel Home heating fuels Diesel fuels Carbon dioxide Natural gas liquids (NGL) Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) Anhydrous ammonia

8 CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations Pipeline Emergencies 8 Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved. Liquid Pipelines … Transmission pipelines move refined products from refineries to marketing and distribution terminals The products are then loaded onto rail cars, cargo tanks trucks, and barges for delivery to the consumer Refined petroleum product transmission pipelines carry several different liquid products simultaneously

9 CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations Pipeline Emergencies 9 Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved. Liquid Pipelines - Highly Volatile Liquids Highly volatile liquids or HVL pipelines are hazardous liquids which will form a vapor cloud when released to the atmosphere HVLs include any liquid with a vapor pressure exceeding 40 psia (276 kpa) at 100ºF (37.8º C) Examples of common highly volatile liquids (HVLs) Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) Propane Butane Ammonia Carbon dioxide Hydrogen

10 CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations Pipeline Emergencies 10 Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved. Gas Pipelines Natural gas may be produced As a separate material During exploration and production operations As a by-product of crude oil production operations The handling of natural gas and natural gas liquids (NGLs) parallels the process for crude oil pipelines Transmission pipelines ranging up to 48-inches in diameter move the natural gas from production and processing to the distribution network Ultimately delivering the product to residential and industrial consumers

11 CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations Pipeline Emergencies 11 Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved. Identification Of Pipelines … The location of an underground pipeline is usually marked by aboveground signs and markers that indicate the presence of a pipeline The primary function of these markers is to alert those who might be working along the pipeline corridor or doing construction in close proximity to the pipeline, and to provide initial emergency contact information Markers are required to be present whenever a pipeline crosses under roads, railroads, or waterways They may also be found at other intervals and locations along the pipeline right-of-way, such as near buildings and structures

12 CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations Pipeline Emergencies 12 Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved. Identification Of Pipelines … Although the color, format and design may vary, all markers are required to provide: 1.The pipeline contents 2.The pipeline operator 3.Emergency telephone number 1 2 3

13 CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations Pipeline Emergencies 13 Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved. Identification Of Pipelines … While pipeline markers indicate the presence of a pipeline(s), the absence of a pipeline marker is no assurance that a pipeline is not present ROW Click to see the pipeline location

14 CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations Pipeline Emergencies 14 Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved. Identification Of Pipelines Other markers may also be found along the right-of-way, including: Painted metal or plastic posts may be used to indicate the right-of-way, especially in urban and suburban areas Pipeline casing vents are sometimes found where a pipeline crosses under a road or rail corridor within a pipeline casing Aerial markers are larger markers with a specific number that indicate a specific geographic location along the pipeline right-of-way

15 CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations Pipeline Emergencies 15 Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved. Pipeline Rights-of-Ways (ROW) The ROW is a strip of land usually about 25 to 150 feet wide containing one or more pipelines or other subsurface utilities (e.g., cables communications) The ROW: Enables pipeline personnel to gain access for inspection, maintenance, testing or emergencies Maintains an unobstructed view for frequent aerial surveillance of the pipeline Identifies an area that restricts certain activities to protect the landowner and the community May be located adjacent to a power line right-of-way or within A highway right-of-way Pipeline Right-of-Way

16 CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations Pipeline Emergencies 16 Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved. Clues That Indicate A Right-of-Way The primary method to identify pipelines and their right-of-way is through the use of pipeline markers located at roads, railways and other intervals along the ROW Pipeline markers only show the approximate location of the buried pipelines, as the depth and exact location of the pipelines can vary within the ROW MARKER PIPELINES Railway

17 CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations Pipeline Emergencies 17 Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved. Pipeline Rights-of-Ways (ROW) Rows are either owned by the pipeline operator or acquired through an agreement with the property owner Pipeline companies are responsible for maintaining their right-of-way to protect the public and environment, the line itself, and other customers from loss of service Typically, a permit must be obtained from the pipeline operator for any activity or encroachment into the row

18 CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations Pipeline Emergencies 18 Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved. The Pipeline … Pipelines can vary from 2-inch diameter for gathering lines to 48-inches for transmission or trunk lines Most modern pipelines are constructed of either seamless steel or steel with a welded longitudinal seam in 40 to 60 ft Lengths The individual pipe joints are welded together into sections To inhibit corrosion, pipe coatings and wrappings applied at the steel mill or on-site are used

19 CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations Pipeline Emergencies 19 Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved. The Pipeline … Minimum depths vary - natural gas distribution mains have a 24-inch minimum depth Federal regulations require that transmission pipelines have a minimum depth of 30 inches in rural areas and deeper in more populated areas

20 CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations Pipeline Emergencies 20 Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved. The Pipeline … When crossing a river, most pipelines are drilled under the riverbed without disturbing the bottom surface If drilling is not possible, the piping may be laid and weighted with concrete or steel anchors to keep it on the bottom Aboveground pipelines may be found at pump and compressor stations, meter stations, some valve stations, river crossings, bridges, and plant and terminal facilities

21 CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations Pipeline Emergencies 21 Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved. The Pipeline Aboveground pipelines are also constructed in a zigzag pattern instead of a straight line to allow for pipeline movement due to thermal expansion or ground movement Once in-place, the pipeline must then be tested for leaks before being placed in service

22 CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations Pipeline Emergencies 22 Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved. Corrosion Control Corrosion is a natural process that, under the proper conditions, can affect any metal or alloy Pipeline operators must also have written guidelines and procedures for most corrosion-related activities Pipeline corrosion is most prevalent when the failure of coatings, inhibitors, or cathodic protection occurs in a corrosive environment

23 CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations Pipeline Emergencies 23 Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved. Types and Causes of Corrosion External corrosion may be caused by damage to coatings, manufacturing defects within the metal, or through the loss of cathodic protection Internal corrosion of pipelines is a concern to all pipeline operators Causes include chloride, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, oxygen, and micro-biological activity Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) involves microbes that produce corrosive conditions Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is the cracking of A pipeline from the combined influence of tensile stress and a corrosive medium

24 CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations Pipeline Emergencies 24 Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved. Pig Receiver on a Natural Gas Pipeline Cutaway of pipeline with pig inside

25 CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations Pipeline Emergencies 25 Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved. Pumps and compressors Provide the force and pressure to move liquid and gas products through a pipeline system The size of the pumps and compressors used in a pipeline system will be dependent upon the type of pipeline, and the product and volumes being transported Moving And Controlling The Product Pumps are commonly used to provide the pressure and force to move products in a liquid pipeline Compressors are typically used on gas pipelines to boost and maintain the pipeline pressure, thereby keeping the gas flowing

26 CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations Pipeline Emergencies 26 Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved. Moving And Controlling The Product … Valves A critical and essential element of a pipeline system in controlling the movement and flow of product Valves can be identified by type or by function, and can be equipped with locking devices to prevent the accidental or malicious operation of the valve Types of valves commonly found on pipeline systems include : Gate valves Plug valves Ball valves Butterfly valves Check valves

27 CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations Pipeline Emergencies 27 Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved. Moving And Controlling The Product Valves Pipeline flow rates and pressures on transmission lines and large distribution lines are controlled through the use of large control valves Safety note Emergency response personnel should never attempt to isolate any pipeline valves on large-diameter transmission or distribution lines unless under the direction of pipeline operations personnel Failure to do so may actually create additional problems that are worse than the original event

28 CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations Pipeline Emergencies 28 Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved. Moving and Controlling The Product Pressure relief valves (PRV) Provide over-pressure protection for pipeline systems and storage tanks Spring-actuated valves that automatically open and relieve pressure when actuated at A pre-set pressure On liquid pipeline systems, the PRV discharge is often directed into A breakout tank where the liquid outflow is collected When actuated, PRVs can generate a tremendous amount of noise, as well as strong odors if the natural gas is odorized A PRV venting to the atmosphere is performing properly, it should never be isolated or restricted by emergency response personnel

29 CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations Pipeline Emergencies 29 Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved. Pressure Relief Valves Control ValvePressure Relief Valves Remember - A PRV venting to the atmosphere is performing properly, and its discharge should never be isolated or restricted by emergency response personnel

30 CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations Pipeline Emergencies 30 Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved. Moving and Controlling The Product … Manifolds Both liquid and gas pipelines use valve manifolds to control the flow path of products Manifolds, with numerous valves and meters, are used to divide the pipeline flow into parts, to combine several flows into one larger pipeline flow, or to reroute product flow to several possible locations

31 CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations Pipeline Emergencies 31 Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved. Moving and Controlling The Product Manifolds Manifolds may perform a number of operations, including: Pumping product through the main pipeline at a pumping station Receiving product from the field into any tank Delivering product from the main pipeline into any storage tank Transferring product from one tank to another Meters are used to measure and record the quantity or volume of product passing through a specific location

32 CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations Pipeline Emergencies 32 Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved. Pipeline Control Centers … The pipeline control center is the heart of pipeline operations Information about the pipelines operating equipment and parameters is communicated into the control center, where operators use computers to monitor the pipeline operation Pipeline monitoring is accomplished through a computerized system known as a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system

33 CHAPTER 3 Pipeline Operations Pipeline Emergencies 33 Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved. Many pipeline operators have their 24- hour emergency phone number connected directly to the pipeline control center The SCADA system continuously monitors the volume in the pipeline and provides line balance reports Most SCADA systems offer multiple computer screens so that an operator can instantly check operations and facts at any location Pipeline Control Centers …

34 CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER 6 Pipeline Emergency Response Operations Pipeline Emergencies 34 Tactical Response Pipeline emergencies are handled safely and effectively when responders are dependent on a predetermined and approved system for managing the event The Eight Step Process© is copyrighted by Jones & Bartlett Learning. It was originally developed by Gregory Noll, Michael Hildebrand, and James Yvorra Material in this section has been reproduced with permission from Jones & Bartlett Learning For more information on the eight step process© see Hazardous Materials: Managing The Incident, (4th edition), Jones & Bartlett learning, Sudbury, MA The Eight Step Process© can serve as a general framework for systematically resolving a pipeline emergency

35 CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER 6 Pipeline Emergency Response Operations Pipeline Emergencies 35 The Eight Step Process© There are eight basic functions that must be evaluated at pipeline emergencies & hazardous materials Site management and control Identify the problem Hazard and risk evaluation Select personal protective clothing and equipment Information management and resource coordination Implement response objectives Decontamination and clean-up operations Terminate the incident The Eight Step Process © is used in this section with permission from Jones and Bartlett Learning

36 CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER 6 Pipeline Emergency Response Operations Pipeline Emergencies 36 Step 1: Site Mgt. and Control Street Smart Tips Site management establishes the playing field for the overall response The initial 10 minutes of the incident will determine operations for the next 60 minutes, and the first 60 minutes will determine operations for the first 8 hours Dont try to control more real estate than you can effectively isolate and control Smaller and tighter may be better than bigger and looser Remember the basics The more time, distance and shielding between you and the material, the lower the risk will be

37 CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER 6 Pipeline Emergency Response Operations Pipeline Emergencies 37 Step 1: Site Mgt. and Control Street Smart Tips Designate an emergency evacuation signal and identify rally points if emergency evacuation is necessary Remember the first law of hot zone operations when dealing with hazardous materials: to play in the game you must: Be trained to play Be dressed to play Have A buddy system with back-up personnel Have Decon established Coordinate with command and safety

38 CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER 6 Pipeline Emergency Response Operations Pipeline Emergencies 38 Step 2: Identify the problem Street Smart Tips A problem well-defined is half-solved Assume that initial information is not correct Always verify your initial information Verify – verify – verify Conduct reconnaissance operations, as necessary Defensive recon Offensive recon Never permit response personnel to perform activities in areas where un-ignited gases or vapors may have accumulated Always verify flammable gas concentrations through continuous air monitoring Always be alert for the presence of improvised explosive devices (IED) and secondary events

39 CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER 6 Pipeline Emergency Response Operations Pipeline Emergencies 39 Step 3: Hazard/Risk Evaluation Street Smart Tips Look at where the problem is now – and where it is going! Consider the travel of both liquid and vapors Focus on those things that you can change and that will make a positive difference to the outcome Every incident will arrive at some outcome…with or without your help If you cant change the outcome, why get involved? Theres nothing wrong with taking a calculated risk If there is much to be gained, there is much to be risked If there is little to be gained, then little should be risked Pubic safety personnel should view their roles as that of risk evaluators, rather than risk takers Bad risk takers get buried Effective risk evaluators come home

40 CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER 6 Pipeline Emergency Response Operations Pipeline Emergencies 40 Step 3: Hazard/Risk Evaluation Street Smart Tips Hour one priorities within the IAP are: Establish site management and control Notify the pipeline operator Determine the materials involved Ensure the safety of all personnel from ALL hazards Ensure that PPE is appropriate for the hazards Initiate tactical objectives to accomplish initial rescue, Decon, medical, and public protective action needs If criminal activities are involved (e.g., Terrorism incidents), maintain the integrity of potential evidence

41 CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER 6 Pipeline Emergency Response Operations Pipeline Emergencies 41 Step 4: PPE Clothing and Equip Street Smart Tips Remember that structural firefighting protective clothing is not designed to provide protection against chemical hazards There is no one single barrier that will effectively combine both chemical and thermal protection Wearing ANY type and level of impermeable protective clothing creates the potential for heat stress injuries Personal protective clothing is your LAST line of defense!!!!

42 CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER 6 Pipeline Emergency Response Operations Pipeline Emergencies 42 Step 5: Info Mgt. and Control Street Smart Tips Consider the security of the ICP and all other incident response areas (e.g., Staging, rehab) of the incident Dont look stupid because you didnt have a plan Bad news doesnt get better with time If theres a problem, the earlier you know about it the sooner you can start to fix it! Dont allow external resources to free-lance or do the end run Dont let your lack of a planning section become the Achilles heel of your response Establish it early, particularly if the incident has the potential to become a campaign event Work together to solve the problem!

43 CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER 6 Pipeline Emergency Response Operations Pipeline Emergencies 43 Step 6: Implement Response Objectives Street Smart Tips Always ask yourself, What will happen if I do nothing? Remember – this is the baseline for hazmat decision-making and should be the element against which all strategies and tactics are compared Remember the basic principles of spill control: Divert the spill to an open area, if possible If flammable liquids are involved, use Class B firefighting foams for vapor suppression Conduct air monitoring – the fire threat takes priority over the environmental threat! Cover storm drains and sewers ahead of the release

44 CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER 6 Pipeline Emergency Response Operations Pipeline Emergencies 44 Step 6: Implement Response Objectives Street Smart Tips Prevent the entry of liquid products into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas Booms, pads and other absorbent materials will not be effective in confining large liquid spills, or spills that have had Class B aqueous film-forming foams (AFFF) applied Underflow dams may be used to control hydrocarbon Liquids released into creeks and streams

45 CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER 6 Pipeline Emergency Response Operations Pipeline Emergencies 45 Step 6: Implement Response Objectives Street Smart Tips Remember the basic principles of fire control: Flammable liquids and gases will give off A tremendous amount of radiant heat Protect exposures, as appropriate Never extinguish a flammable gas fire Always control or isolate the source of the leak If you cant isolate the source, then attempt to reduce the operating pressure of the pipeline Permit the fire to self-extinguish and consume any residual fuel that may remain inside or around the pipeline

46 CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER 6 Pipeline Emergency Response Operations Pipeline Emergencies 46 Step 6: Implement Response Objectives Street Smart Tips Remember the basic principles of leak control: Emergency responders should NEVER attempt to isolate any pipeline valves on large-diameter transmission or distribution lines unless under the direction of pipeline operations personnel Failure to do so may actually create additional problems that are worse than the original event Dont touch natural gas plastic piping, as it may generate a static spark that could act as an ignition source Shutting off the main natural gas supply to large commercial or industrial facilities may actually create secondary or tertiary problems worse than the original incident

47 CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER 6 Pipeline Emergency Response Operations Pipeline Emergencies 47 Step 6: Implement Response Objectives Street Smart Tips Remember the basic principles of leak control: Once a flammable gas supply is shutoff, NEVER turn the service valve ON again Service restoration should only be conducted by gas utility representatives Dont fill up an open hole or trench with water It wont stop the flow of natural gas, may delay efforts to control the problem, and wont make the pipeline workers who have to fix the problem happy Surprises often occur on the emergency scene Always have A plan B in case plan A doesnt work!

48 CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER 6 Pipeline Emergency Response Operations Pipeline Emergencies 48 Step 7 Decon and Clean UP Street Smart Tips Establishing an emergency Decon capability should be part of the incident action plan for any incident where hazardous materials are involved Remember that flammables may be absorbed into structural firefighting clothing and be carried into safe areas Decon involving large numbers of people will be a challenge Remember the basics – separate people from the problem and keep them corralled until emergency Decon is established Never transport contaminated victims from the scene to any medical facility without conducting field Decon

49 CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER 6 Pipeline Emergency Response Operations Pipeline Emergencies 49 Step 8: Terminate the Incident Street Smart Tips Although every organization has a tendency to develop its own critique style, never use a critique to assign blame Organizations must balance the potential negatives against the benefits that are gained through the critique process Remember – the reason for doing the critique in the first place is to improve your operations! Most critiques fall into one of three categories: We tell each other that we did a great job – whether we actually did or not We beat up on each other for making bad decisions We focus on the lessons that were learned and the changes/improvements that must be made to our response system

50 CHAPTER 7 Scenarios Pipeline Emergencies 50 Pipeline Emergencies 50 Copyright, 2011, National Association of State Fire Marshals. All rights reserved. Closing Be safe For more information Philip Oakes


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