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Dust in Dwarf Galaxies Adam Leroy N ATIONAL R ADIO A STRONOMY O BSERVATORY HERITAGE (Meixner et al.)

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Presentation on theme: "Dust in Dwarf Galaxies Adam Leroy N ATIONAL R ADIO A STRONOMY O BSERVATORY HERITAGE (Meixner et al.)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Dust in Dwarf Galaxies Adam Leroy N ATIONAL R ADIO A STRONOMY O BSERVATORY HERITAGE (Meixner et al.)

2 Dust in Dwarf Galaxies Adam Leroy N ATIONAL R ADIO A STRONOMY O BSERVATORY HERITAGE (Meixner et al.)

3 SAGE (Meixner+ `06) Dust in Dwarf Galaxies Based on work by many of the folks here…

4 Dust in Dwarf Galaxies is … Less abundant than in spiral galaxies… … even more than you expect given the metallicity (?) The dust that is present is deficient in PAHs… … rich in small grains (and/or hotter) … … and exhibits a mysterious long-wavelength excess. This dust is mixed with gas, making it an ISM tracer… … especially useful for hard-to-see molecular gas. And dust appears to help regulate star formation… … influencing the balance of H 2 -and-HI. SED D/G ISM SFR

5 D UST - TO -G AS R ATIO Ratio of dust mass to total gas mass in the ISM. R ELATION TO M ETALLICITY ? Metallicity – ratio of heavy elements to gas mass. Significant fraction of heavy elements in dust in MW (Si, Mg, Fe; most C). Same in dwarfs? Expect roughly linear relation… How Much Dust in Dwarf Galaxies? D/G PNe, Old *s PNe, Old *s SN Accretion in clouds SNR Shocks Winds SNR Shocks Winds

6 G ALAMETZ, MADDEN, ET AL. 11 : D/G in dwarf irregulars declines faster than metals … following L ISENFELD & F ERRARA `98, D RAINE + `07, etc. … much more limited if only sub-mm observations used Linear Current Ensemble of Measurements D/G Points: whole galaxies from wide-net literature trawl Dust-to-Gas Mass Ratio Metallicity (12 + log O/H)

7 Semi-Resolved: Dust-Poor Envelopes? D/G Points: whole SINGS galaxies but dwarfs treated with varying aperture D RAINE ET AL. 07: Aperture definition strongly affects D/G in SINGS dwarfs. Metallicity (12 + log O/H) Dust-to-Gas Mass Ratio

8 Dust-Poor Envelopes? D/G Points: whole SINGS galaxies but dwarfs treated with varying aperture D RAINE ET AL. 07: Aperture definition strongly affects D/G in SINGS dwarfs. Metallicity (12 + log O/H) Dust-to-Gas Mass Ratio Only over IR Region DGR consistent with metallicity trend. Only over IR Region DGR consistent with metallicity trend. Over the Whole Galaxy D/G lower than expected given a simple trend with metallicity Over the Whole Galaxy D/G lower than expected given a simple trend with metallicity

9 But it Does Break… Eventually D/G H ERRERA -C AMUS ET AL. (2012): I Zw 18 upper limit rules out linear D/G vs. z Points: whole SINGS galaxies + I Zw 18 Dust-to-Gas Mass Ratio Metallicity (12 + log O/H)

10 But it Does Break… Eventually D/G F ISHER, B OLATTO ET AL. ( IN PREP.): Herschel constrains I Zw 18 SED to be very hot low mass Points: SED of the very low-metallicity BCD I Zw 18 (courtesy D. Fisher)

11 Dust in Dwarf Galaxies is … Less abundant than in spiral galaxies… … even more than you expect given the metallicity (?) D/G

12 Dust Spectral Energy Distribution SED Illustration: DustEM Model from Compiègne+ `11 Wavelength (μm) Emergent Energy (νF ν )

13 Dust in Dwarf Galaxies SED PAH Emission Out of equilibrium emission from small, carbonaceous grains. Emission in bands from 1 to 20 μm. Large collecting area, minor mass fraction. PAH Emission Out of equilibrium emission from small, carbonaceous grains. Emission in bands from 1 to 20 μm. Large collecting area, minor mass fraction. Wavelength (μm) Emergent Energy (νF ν ) Illustration: DustEM Model from Compiègne+ `11

14 Wavelength (μm) Emergent Energy (νF ν ) Dust Spectral Energy Distribution SED Small Grain Emission Emission from small dust grains out of equilibrium with the ISRF (stochastic heating). Contribute from μm. Small Grain Emission Emission from small dust grains out of equilibrium with the ISRF (stochastic heating). Contribute from μm. Illustration: DustEM Model from Compiègne+ `11

15 Wavelength (μm) Emergent Energy (νF ν ) Dust Spectral Energy Distribution SED Large Grain Emission In equilibrium with the interstellar radiation field. Holds most dust mass, dominates above 100 μm. Large Grain Emission In equilibrium with the interstellar radiation field. Holds most dust mass, dominates above 100 μm. Illustration: DustEM Model from Compiègne+ `11

16 PAH Features vs. Metallicity SED E NGELBRACHT + `05, `08; M ADDEN `06: PAH emission systematically declines with metallicity. Spectra: IRS spectra of many galaxies binned and stacked by metallicity. Wavelength (μm) Flux (F ν ) [Jy] Metallicity

17 PAH Emission vs. Metallicity SED E NGELBRACHT + `05, `08: (Broadband) PAH strength drops around 12+log O/H = 8.2 Each point: one galaxy Metallicity (12 + log O/H) 8-to-24 μm Ratio (roughly tracing PAH strength)

18 Resolving Suppression of PAHs SED S ANDSTROM + `10: PAHs coincident with CO emission, shielding. Map: Local PAH mass fraction (q PAH ) in the Small Magellanic Cloud, Contour: NANTEN CO 3σ CO Emission (well shielded)

19 Bluer IR-Colors SED B ERNARD + `08: (M31) Milky Way LMC SMC progressively bluer far-IR color. Wavelength (μm) Emergent Energy (νF ν ) Spectra: SEDs of Milky Way, LMC, SMC

20 Bluer IR Colors SED E NGELBRACHT + `05: 70/160 color correlates with metallicity. Temperature? Smaller grains? Metallicity (12 + log O/H) 70-to-160 μm Ratio (Temperature or VSG Contribution) Points: Individual galaxies

21 NGC 1569 Long Wavelength Emission SED SMC Planck Collaboration `11 G ALLIANO + `03,`05, G ALAMETZ `09: mm emission from dwarfs higher than expected for β=2. … Planck Collaboration `11 … these extend to longer wavelengths.in the SMC Wavelength (μm)

22 NGC 1569 Long Wavelength Emission SED SMC Planck Collaboration `11 Wavelength (μm) G ALLIANO + `03,`05, G ALAMETZ `09: mm emission from dwarfs higher than expected for β=2. … Planck Collaboration `11 … these extend to longer wavelengths.in the SMC

23 Long Wavelength Emission SED G ALLIANO + `11: Large Magellanic Cloud … sub-mm excess not correlated with H 2 HI Surface Density Excess Emission Above Standard Fit to SED in SPIRE 500 μm Band H 2 Surface Density Contours: Data distribution for excess measured line of sight by line of sight in the LMC

24 Dust in Dwarf Galaxies is … The dust that is present is deficient in PAHs… … rich in small grains (and/or hotter) … … and exhibits a mysterious long-wavelength excess. SED

25 Dust as an ISM Tracer ISM H ERITAGE, S AGE, S AGE -SMC: Dust maps are ISM maps…

26 Dust as an ISM Tracer ISM P LANCK C OLLABORATION + `11, L EROY + `09: Correlation of dust emission, H in MW, SMC Hydrogen Column Sub-mm Emission at 550 GHz HI Column Fit Optical Depth at 160 μm Data: IR or sub-mm emission vs. gas column for individual lines of sight Milky Way SMC

27 Dust as an ISM Tracer ISM H2 = ( dust × GDR)- HI Dust traces the total (HI + H 2 ) gas column Estimate dust from IR emission, measure HI Get gas-to-dust ratio by comparison with HI

28 Observed CO H 2 from IRAS Dust Emission Comparison in Profile Dust as an ISM Tracer ISM D AME + `01: Works to match CO distribution in Milky Way

29 CO emissionH 2 from Dust Dust as an ISM Tracer ISM L EROY + `09: Reveals similar structure to CO mapping on small scales (10 pc) in SMC. Maps: CO (left) and H2 estimated from IR emission (right) in the SMC star-forming complex N83/N84

30 Dust as an ISM Tracer ISM B OLATTO + `11, L EROY + `07: Combine IR imaging, HI to infer H 2 distribution in the SMC Atomic Gas (21-cm)IR Opacity (Spitzer) Molecular Gas H2 = ( dust × GDR)- HI

31 Dust as an ISM Tracer ISM Metallicity (12+log O/H) CO-to-H 2 Conversion Factor Points: Dust-driven solutions for the conversion factor in parts of Local Group galaxies L EROY + `11: Conversion factor rises sharply at low metallicity. Dust a good alternative…

32 Dust in Dwarf Galaxies is … This dust is mixed with gas, making it an ISM tracer… … especially useful for hard-to-see molecular gas. ISM

33 Atomic Gas (21-cm) Molecular Gas (CO 2-1) Dust as a Star Formation Regulator SFR S CHRUBA + `11: Correlation of star formation with molecular and atomic gas Points: Rings (azimuthal averages) in 30 disk galaxies

34 Dust as a Star Formation Regulator SFR Molecular to Atomic Gas Ratio Points: kpc-resolution lines of sight in 22 disk galaxies L EROY +H ERACLES /K INGFISH ( IN PREP.): Molecular to atomic ratio follows gas surface density.

35 Dust as a Star Formation Regulator SFR Molecular to Atomic Gas Ratio Points: kpc-resolution lines of sight in 22 disk galaxies L EROY +H ERACLES /K INGFISH ( IN PREP.): Molecular to atomic ratio follows gas surface density.

36 Dust as a Star Formation Regulator SFR Molecular to Atomic Gas Ratio Divided by Avg. Ratio at that Surface Density Points: kpc-resolution lines of sight in 22 disk galaxies L EROY +H ERACLES /K INGFISH ( IN PREP.): Molecular to atomic ratio follows gas surface density.

37 Dust as a Star Formation Regulator SFR Molecular to Atomic Gas Ratio Divided by Avg. Ratio at that Surface Density Points: kpc-resolution lines of sight in 22 disk galaxies L EROY +H ERACLES /K INGFISH ( IN PREP.): Molecular to atomic ratio follows gas surface density.

38 Dust in Dwarf Galaxies is … And dust appears to help regulate star formation… … influencing the balance of H 2 -and-HI. SFR

39 Dust in Dwarf Galaxies is … Less abundant than in spiral galaxies… … even more than you expect given the metallicity (?) The dust that is present is deficient in PAHs… … rich in small grains (and/or hotter) … … and exhibits a mysterious long-wavelength excess. This dust is mixed with gas, making it an ISM tracer… … especially useful for hard-to-see molecular gas. And dust appears to help regulate star formation… … influencing the balance of H 2 -and-HI. SED D/G ISM SFR


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