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© OECD/IEA 2013 Annual Natural Gas Questionnaire Overview Energy Statistics Training Paris, 4-8 March, 2013 Ana-Luísa São-Marcos, HP Chung Annual Gas Statistics.

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Presentation on theme: "© OECD/IEA 2013 Annual Natural Gas Questionnaire Overview Energy Statistics Training Paris, 4-8 March, 2013 Ana-Luísa São-Marcos, HP Chung Annual Gas Statistics."— Presentation transcript:

1 © OECD/IEA 2013 Annual Natural Gas Questionnaire Overview Energy Statistics Training Paris, 4-8 March, 2013 Ana-Luísa São-Marcos, HP Chung Annual Gas Statistics

2 © OECD/IEA 2013 Natural Gas Statistics Plan of the presentation Background to Natural Gas Statistics Definitions; Global trends in Natural gas; Production, supply and consumption Structure of the Questionnaire Structure and presentation; basic concepts, overview of the tables, relations within the questionnaire Data treatment Submission; verification; specific problems Access Natural Gas information/data

3 © OECD/IEA 2013 comprises gases occurring in underground deposits, whether liquefied or gaseous, consisting mainly of methane. It includes: Natural Gas Statistics Basics Natural Gas Associated gas – found in association with crude oil Non-associated gas – originating from fields producing hydrocarbons only in gaseous form Shale gas is included Colliery gas – methane removed from coal mines and coal seams

4 © OECD/IEA 2013 Natural Gas Gaseous gasLiquefied gas Same methane (CH4) content Volume of natural gas varies with temperature and pressure Cooled at -160 degrees Celsius and 1 atm Different physical state At the IEA measured at 15 degrees Celsius and 1 atm Liquefied gas shrinks more than 600 times in volume

5 © OECD/IEA 2013 * Other includes geothermal, solar, wind, heat, etc World total primary energy supply ( ) Mtoe GAS 16% 21% 977 Mtoe 2721 Mtoe

6 © OECD/IEA bcm 3388 bcm Natural gas production from 1971 to 2011 billion cubic metres (bcm) 2.7 x

7 © OECD/IEA 2013 Natural gas production from 1971 to 2011 by region billion cubic metres * Asia excludes China 1226 bcm3388 bcm 71% 36%

8 © OECD/IEA 2013 Collecting Processing Disseminating 1 product = Natural Gas

9 © OECD/IEA 2013 Natural Gas - Production Marketed Production Vented Gas Flared or reinjected Removal of Liquids in Natural Gas Processing Plants Removal of Sulphur and Impurities Extraction of Crude Oil and Associated Gas Extraction of Non-Associated Gas Other Separation (offshore wells) Wellhead Separation (onshore wells) NGL Crude Oil Annual Oil Questionnaire Associated Gas Non- Associated Gas Colliery Gas Coal Mines Annual Gas Questionnaire

10 © OECD/IEA 2013 Natural Gas - Supply and Consumption Marketed Production Imports Exports Stock Build Inland Consumption Transport Transformation Industry Residential Commercial Agriculture Stock Draw Distribution Losses Energy

11 © OECD/IEA 2013 Questionnaire structure Gas balance Production Imports Exports Stock Change Statistical Difference Transformation … Energy Sector … Final Consumption Transport … Industry … Other Sectors… Demand Inland Consumption (Observed) Supply Inland Consumption (Calculated)

12 © OECD/IEA 2013 Questionnaire structure Gas balance Production Imports Exports … Statistical Difference Transformation … Energy Sector … Final Consumption Transport … Industry … Other Sectors … Table 3 Table 4 Table 1 Table 2b Table 2a

13 © OECD/IEA 2013 Table 2b Inland consumption Table 1 Table 2a Tables 3 & 4 Supply Total final consumption Exports/Imports Table 5 Gas storage capacity

14 © OECD/IEA 2013 Table 2b Inland consumption Table 1 Table 2a Tables 3 &4 Supply Total final consumption Exports/Imports Table 5 Gas storage capacity

15 © OECD/IEA 2013 Supply of Natural Gas, Table 1 Million m3 (at 15°C, 760 mm Hg) TJ (Gross Calor. Value) Average GCV (kJ/m3) Average NCV (kJ/m3) ABCD Indigenous Production1 0 Associated Gas2 0 Non-Associated Gas3 0 Colliery Gas4 0 From Other Sources5 0 Total Imports (Balance)6 0 Total Exports (Balance)7 0 International Marine Bunkers8 0 Stock Changes (National Territory)9 0 Inland Consumption (Calculated) Statistical Differences1100 Inland Consumption (Observed)12 0 Recoverable Gas Opening Stock Level (National Territory)13 0 Closing Stock Level (National Territory)14 0 Memo: Gas Vented15 Gas Flared16 Memo: Cushion Gas Cushion Gas Closing Stock Level17 Memo: From other sources From Other Sources - Oil18 0 From Other Sources - Coal19 0 From Other Sources - Renewables20 0 Year & Country

16 © OECD/IEA 2013 Supply – Table 1 Indigenous Production dry marketable production (after purification and extraction of NGL and sulphur) Exclude gas vented and flared, losses, reinjected quantities Imports and Exports are considered imported or exported when having crossed the physical boundary of a country Exclude transit and re-exports Stock changes and levels stock levels of recoverable gas, i.e. excluding cushion gas change of stock is opening - closing stock level of recoverable gas Natural Gas Questionnaire Definitions and Basic Concepts

17 © OECD/IEA 2013 Units: Natural gas data are collected in Volume : million m 3 - under Standard Conditions (15 degrees Celcius and 760 mm Hg) Energy unit : TJ - Gross Calorific Value Conversion specific kJ/m 3 calorific value Indigenous Production Imports Exports Inland Consumption (calc) Inland Consumption (obs) Natural Gas Questionnaire Definitions and Basic Concepts

18 © OECD/IEA 2013 Table 2b Inland consumption Table 1 Table 2a Tables 3 &4 Supply Total final consumption Exports/Imports Table 5 Gas storage capacity

19 © OECD/IEA 2013 Inland Consumption, Table 2a Unit: TJ (GCV) Consumption A Inland Demand (Total Consumption)1 Transformation Sector2 Main Activity Producer Electricity Plants3 Autoproducer Electricity Plants4 Main Activity Producer CHP Plants5 Autoproducer CHP Plants6 Main Activity Producer Heat Plants7 Autoproducer Heat Plants8 Gas Works (Transformation)9 Coke Ovens (Transformation)10 Blast Furnaces (Transformation)11 Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) Plants (Transformation)12 Non-specified (Transformation)13 Energy Sector14 Coal Mines15 Oil and Gas Extraction16 Petroleum Refineries17 Coke Ovens (Energy)18 Blast Furnaces (Energy)19 Gas Works (Energy)20 Own Use in Electricity, CHP and Heat Plants21 Liquefaction (LNG) / Regasification Plants22 Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) Plants (Energy)23 Non-specified (Energy)24 Distribution Losses25 Total Final Consumption26 Only TJ, conversion in m3 is done at the IEA using Calorific value from Table 1 – Inland consumption obs. Transformation sector Energy sector Inland Demand (Total Consumption) Distribution losses Total final consumption

20 © OECD/IEA 2013 Inland Consumption - Table 2a Transformation Sector Natural Gas used for producing another type of energy (electricity, heat) which is then used for final consumption Example: Electrical power company (Main electricity producer) Energy Sector Natural Gas consumed by Energy Industry to support extraction or transformation activity. Example: Liquefaction plants, Petroleum refineries Distribution Losses (losses due to transport & distribution) Total Final Consumption (end-use sectors) Natural Gas Questionnaire Definitions and Basic Concepts

21 © OECD/IEA 2013 Table 2b Inland consumption Table 1 Table 2a Tables 3 &4 Supply Total final consumption Exports/Imports Table 5 Gas storage capacity

22 © OECD/IEA 2013 Sector\PlantElectricity plantCHP plantHeat plant Transformation Main activity producer All production and all fuel used All electricity and heat produced and all fuel used All heat produced and all fuel used AutoproducerAll electricity produced and only heat sold with corresponding fuel used Only heat sold and corresponding fuel used IndustryNatural gas consumed in heat and CHP plants for the production of heat used by the plant itself.

23 © OECD/IEA 2013 Inland Consumption, Table 2b Unit: TJ (GCV) Energy UseNon-Energy Use AB Total Final Consumption1 Transport Sector2 Road3 of which Biogas4 Pipeline Transport5 Non-specified (Transport)6 Industry Sector7 Iron and Steel8 Chemical (including Petrochemical)9 Non-Ferrous Metals10 Non-Metallic Minerals11 Transport Equipment12 Machinery13 Mining and Quarrying14 Food, Beverages and Tobacco15 Paper, Pulp and Printing16 Wood and Wood Products17 Construction18 Textiles and Leather19 Non-specified (Industry)20 Other Sectors21 Commercial and Public Services22 Residential23 Agriculture/Forestry24 Fishing25 Non-specified (Other)26 Energy Use Total Final Consumption Non-energy Use Transport sector Industry sector Other sectors TJ (GCV)

24 © OECD/IEA 2013 Final Consumption - Table 2b (= delivered to final consumers) Different Use Energy Use Report Natural Gas used as fuel (E.g. Compressed natural gas for use in road vehicles, natural gas used in households for heating purposes) Non-Energy Use Report Natural Gas used as a raw material for producing other products (Petrochemical Industry) E.g. Natural gas used as feedstock to make hydrogen 3 Sectors Industry Sector (steel plants, cement plants, …) Transport Sector (CNG in fuel stations, …) Other Sectors (Households, hospitals, offices, …) Natural Gas Questionnaire Definitions and Basic Concepts

25 © OECD/IEA 2013 Table 2b Inland consumption Table 1 Table 2a Tables 3 & 4 Supply Total final consumption Exports/Imports Table 5 Gas storage capacity

26 © OECD/IEA 2013 Imports/Exports, Tables 3 and 4 Million m3 TJ (GCV) COUNTRY OF DESTINATION Total Exportsof which: LNGTotal Exportsof which: LNG ABCD Australia1 Austria2 Belarus3 …. Pipeline+ LNG =

27 © OECD/IEA 2013 Imports / Exports - Tables 3,4 Requested Data 2 Units: Million m3 and TJ Total imports and LNG => pipeline is derived Geographical Breakdown 70 import origins 65 export destinations Trade Importance of the ultimate origin or destination Transit trade and re-exports are not to be included

28 © OECD/IEA 2013 Country A Country B A special case in trade reporting Imports LNG Regasification process (value added activity) Exports Gaseous gas This is not transit and should be reported in both Imports and Exports tables

29 © OECD/IEA 2013 Table 2b Inland consumption Table 1 Table 2a Tables 3 &4 Supply Total final consumption Exports/Imports Table 5 Gas storage capacity

30 © OECD/IEA 2013 Gas storage capacity, Table 5 NameType Working Capacity (mcm) Peak Output (mcm/day) TOTAL Gas security – important energy policy issue in gas consuming countries In case of supply disruption it is crucial to know the available storage facilities in one region.

31 © OECD/IEA 2013 Gas Storage Capacity – Table 5 Location of the storage Type of storage Depleted oil and gas fields Aquifers Salt Cavities for LNG if it is above, in or below ground and # tanks Technical Characteristics Working Capacity = total gas storage capacity minus cushion gas Peak Output = maximum rate at which gas can be withdrawn from storage Natural Gas Questionnaire Definitions and Basic Concepts

32 © OECD/IEA 2013 Natural Gas Questionnaire Relations between the tables

33 © OECD/IEA 2013 OECD … World … What happens when data arrive at IEA?

34 © OECD/IEA 2013 What happens when data arrive at IEA? Questionnaire in excel format received via on Generic Account Or data can be uploaded or entered into a web-based version of the questionnaire (EDC) Data are loaded in the IEA databases Data are checked Arithmetically Internal consistency Inter-fuel comparison Time Series Check Comparisons of monthly and annual data Comparisons with national publications Natural Gas Questionnaire Data treatment

35 © OECD/IEA 2013 Trade increasing difficulties with liberalised market transit trade is often reported as import / export spot purchases exchange contracts Units measurement in million cubic metres under Standard conditions - often reported under Normal conditions data in TJ often reported as Net rather than Gross Some specific problems regarding gas reporting

36 © OECD/IEA 2013 Natural Gas Information (hard copy, pdf) CD-ROM On-line Data Service Pay-Per-View Data download Derived publications/analysis: Energy Statistics of OECD Countries Energy Balances of OECD Countries CO 2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Accessing Natural Gas information

37 © OECD/IEA 2013 Natural Gas Questionnaire Exercise Preparation Key Points Units of Measurement Calorific Values Weighted Average Production Trade: Imports and Exports Electricity and Heat Generation

38 © OECD/IEA 2013 Natural Gas Questionnaire Energy- Terajoule (TJ) Physical- Volume: 10 6 cubic meters (Mm 3 ) Volume varies with temperature and pressure Normal Condition 0 C ( K), 760 mm Hg (1 atm) C onversion Factors Units of Measurement Standard Condition 15 C ( K), 760 mm Hg (1 atm) 1 m m 3 x x 1.055

39 © OECD/IEA 2013 Natural Gas Questionnaire Energy- Terajoule (TJ) Physical- Volume: 10 6 cubic meters (Mm 3 ) Volume varies with temperature and pressure Normal Condition 0 C ( K), 760 mm Hg (1 atm) C onversion Factors Units of Measurement Standard Condition 15 C ( K), 760 mm Hg (1 atm) 1 m m 3 x x Same energy content

40 © OECD/IEA 2013 Natural Gas Questionnaire Units of Measurement In the questionnaire, data must be reported: For volume: Mm 3 in the standard condition For energy:TJ on the basis of Gross Calorific Value (GCV)

41 © OECD/IEA 2013 Natural Gas Questionnaire Calorific Values The calorific value is heat value obtained from one volume unit of gas (e.g. TJ/Mm 3 ) Gross Calorific Value (GCV) includes all the heat released by the fuel Net Calorific Value (NCV) excludes the latent heat of vaporization The difference between NCV and GCV is typically about 10% for natural gas. For natural gas: NCV 0.9 GCV

42 © OECD/IEA 2013 Natural Gas Questionnaire Calorific Values Calorific values of gas may differ for different flows such as: Production from different fields or same field but different reservoirs Imports from different countries Calorific values change over time (e.g. imports from different countries) Use a weighted average that takes into account the proportional magnitude of each component rather than treating the components equally

43 © OECD/IEA 2013 Natural Gas Questionnaire Weighted Average Calorific Value Definition: where:CV = Calorific Value (e.g. kJ/kg) Quantity = Physical Quantity (e.g. kg)

44 © OECD/IEA 2013 Natural Gas Questionnaire Weighted Average Calorific Value Example: Country A FieldsProductionCalorific ValueEnergy Site 110 Mm 3 30 TJ/Mm TJ Site 220 Mm 3 35 TJ/Mm TJ Total30 Mm 3 ?1 000 TJ

45 © OECD/IEA 2013 Example: Country A Natural Gas Questionnaire Weighted Average Calorific Value FieldsProductionCalorific ValueEnergy Site 110 Mm 3 30 TJ/Mm TJ Site 220 Mm 3 35 TJ/Mm TJ Total30 Mm TJ/Mm TJ

46 © OECD/IEA 2013 Natural Gas Questionnaire Production Flow

47 © OECD/IEA 2013 Natural Gas Questionnaire Production Flow

48 © OECD/IEA 2013 Natural Gas Questionnaire Production Flow

49 © OECD/IEA 2013 Natural Gas Questionnaire Production Flow

50 © OECD/IEA 2013 Natural Gas Questionnaire Trade: Imports and Exports Imports: ultimate origin of gas (country of production) Exports: ultimate destination (country of consumption) Transit and Re-exports not include in trade balances Example: Russia exports 200 m 3 of natural gas. The pipeline goes through Ukraine before reaching Poland. Ukraine consumes 100 m 3 and the rest goes to Poland. Then, Poland consumes 50 m 3 of the natural gas and exports 50 m 3 to Czech Republic

51 © OECD/IEA 2013 Natural Gas Questionnaire 200 m 3 Russian Federation Ukraine 100 m 3 Consumed

52 © OECD/IEA 2013 Natural Gas Questionnaire 200 m 3 Russian Federation Poland 50 m 3 Consumed 100 m 3 Ukraine 100 m 3 Consumed

53 © OECD/IEA 2013 Natural Gas Questionnaire 200 m 3 Russian Federation Poland 50 m 3 Consumed 100 m 3 Ukraine 100 m 3 Consumed 50 m 3 Czech Rep. 50 m 3 Consumed

54 © OECD/IEA 2013 Natural Gas Questionnaire Trade: Imports and Exports Example: Russian Federation Ukraine imports 100 m 3 from Russian Federation Poland imports 50 m 3 from Russian Federation Czech Rep. imports 50 m 3 from Russian Federation CountryExports Czech Rep.50 m 3 Poland50 m 3 Ukraine100 m 3

55 © OECD/IEA 2013 Natural Gas Questionnaire Electricity and Heat Generation Generation plants are classified by output: Electricity-only plants CHP (Combined Heat and Power) plants Heat-only plants Generation plants are also classified by function: Main Activity Producers (ex. Nuclear power plant) Autoproducers (ex. Steel mill producing electricity)

56 © OECD/IEA 2013 Natural Gas Questionnaire Exercise Preparation Key Points Units of Measurement Calorific Values Weighted Average Production Trade: Imports and Exports Electricity and Heat Generation

57 © OECD/IEA 2013 Natural Gas Questionnaire Thank you


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