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Gas Laws Section 3.2

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Gas and Pressure Pressure—result of force distributed over an area

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Gas and Pressure The wider the arrow, the greater the force. Which has the greatest pressure? The least pressure?

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**What causes pressure? In a gas, it’s all about collisions**

Atoms in a gas are constantly moving Collisions push against container and create pressure

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**What affects pressure? Temperature of gas Volume of gas**

Number of particles in gas

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**Temperature and Pressure**

Overall, increasing the temperature increases the pressure Higher temperature increases particle speed energy collisions pressure

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Volume and Pressure Overall, decreasing the volume increases the pressure Less space means more collisions collisions pressure

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**Number of Particles and Pressure**

Overall, increasing the number of particles increases the pressure More particles means more collisions collisions pressure

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The Gas Laws Charles’s Law Boyle’s Law

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Charles’s Law Jacques Charles Collected data on temperature and volume

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Charles’s Law Extended line to hit x-axis

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Charles’s Law Temperature at which the volume is 0L is – C, or 0K. Absolute zero Volume of gas is directly proportional to the temperature (in Kelvin) if pressure and particle number are same

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Charles’s Law V1 = V2 T1 T2 V1 = Initial volume T1= Initial temperature (K) V2 = Final volume T2= Final temperature (K)

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**Sample Problems Steps: Identify any knowns as either V1, T1, V2, or T2**

Make sure that all temperature values are in Kelvin Plug knowns in equation Double-check that answer and units make sense

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**A sample of gas at 101. 3kPa had a volume of 1. 2L at 100oC**

A sample of gas at 101.3kPa had a volume of 1.2L at 100oC. What would its volume be at 0oC at the same pressure? Vf = 0.88L A balloon had a volume of 75L at 25oC. To what does the temperature need to raised in order for the balloon to have a volume of 100L at the same pressure? Tf = 124oC

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Boyle’s Law Robert Boyle Collected data on pressure and volume

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Boyle’s Law

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Boyle’s Law Volume of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure if the volume and particle number are same

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**Boyle’s Law P1V1 = P2V2 V1 = Initial volume P1= Initial pressure**

V2 = Final volume R2= Final pressure

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**Sample Problems Steps: Identify any knowns as either V1, P1, V2, or P2**

Plug knowns in equation Double-check that answer and units make sense

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The volume of the lungs is measured by the volume of air inhaled or exhaled. If the volume of the lungs is L during exhalation and the pressure is KPa, and the pressure during inhalation is KPa, what is the volume of the lungs during inhalation? 2.441 L It is hard to begin inflating a balloon. A pressure of Kpa is required to initially inflate the balloon mL. What is the final pressure when the balloon has reached it's capacity of 1.2 L? 150 Kpa

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Combined Gas Law Describes the relationship between the temperature, volume, and pressure of a gas when the number of particles is constant

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**Combined Gas Law P1V1 = P2V2 T1 T2**

V1 = Initial volume V2 = Final volume T1 = Initial temperature (K) T2 = Final temperature (K) P1 = Initial Pressure P2 = Final Pressure

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**A gas takes up a volume of 17 liters, has a pressure of 2**

A gas takes up a volume of 17 liters, has a pressure of 2.3 atm, and a temperature of 299 K. If I raise the temperature to 350 K and lower the pressure to 1.5 atm, what is the new volume of the gas? 30.6 L If I have 17 liters of gas at a temperature of 67 0C and a pressure of atm, what will be the pressure of the gas if I raise the temperature to 94 0C and decrease the volume to 12 liters? 136 atm If I have 2.9 L of gas at a pressure of 5 atm and a temperature of 50 0C, what will be the temperature of the gas if I decrease the volume of the gas to 2.4 L and decrease the pressure to 3 atm? 160 K

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**Still Confused? Check out the website for more practice problems**

Come to clinic Search the internet for even more practice problems

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Ch. 10 & 11 - Gases II. The Gas Laws (p. 313-322) P V T.

Ch. 10 & 11 - Gases II. The Gas Laws (p. 313-322) P V T.

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