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Gas Laws Section 3.2

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Gas and Pressure Pressureresult of force distributed over an area

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Gas and Pressure The wider the arrow, the greater the force. Which has the greatest pressure? The least pressure?

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What causes pressure? In a gas, its all about collisions –Atoms in a gas are constantly moving Collisions push against container and create pressure

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What affects pressure? 1)Temperature of gas 2)Volume of gas 3)Number of particles in gas

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Temperature and Pressure Overall, increasing the temperature increases the pressure Higher temperature increases particle speed energy collisions pressure

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Volume and Pressure Overall, decreasing the volume increases the pressure Less space means more collisions collisions pressure

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Number of Particles and Pressure Overall, increasing the number of particles increases the pressure More particles means more collisions collisions pressure

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The Gas Laws Charless Law Boyles Law

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Charless Law Jacques Charles Collected data on temperature and volume

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Charless Law Extended line to hit x-axis

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Charless Law Temperature at which the volume is 0L is – C, or 0K. Absolute zero Volume of gas is directly proportional to the temperature (in Kelvin) if pressure and particle number are same

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Charless Law V 1 =V 2 T 1 T 2 V 1 = Initial volumeT 1 = Initial temperature (K) V 2 = Final volumeT 2 = Final temperature (K)

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Sample Problems 1.Steps: Identify any knowns as either V1, T1, V2, or T2 2.Make sure that all temperature values are in Kelvin 3.Plug knowns in equation 4.Double-check that answer and units make sense

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A sample of gas at 101.3kPa had a volume of 1.2L at 100 o C. What would its volume be at 0 o C at the same pressure? V f = 0.88L A balloon had a volume of 75L at 25 o C. To what does the temperature need to raised in order for the balloon to have a volume of 100L at the same pressure? T f = 124 o C

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Boyles Law Robert Boyle Collected data on pressure and volume

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Boyles Law

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Volume of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure if the volume and particle number are same

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Boyles Law P 1 V 1 =P 2 V 2 V 1 = Initial volumeP 1 = Initial pressure V 2 = Final volumeR 2 = Final pressure

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Sample Problems 1.Steps: Identify any knowns as either V1, P1, V2, or P2 2.Plug knowns in equation 3.Double-check that answer and units make sense

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The volume of the lungs is measured by the volume of air inhaled or exhaled. If the volume of the lungs is L during exhalation and the pressure is KPa, and the pressure during inhalation is KPa, what is the volume of the lungs during inhalation? L It is hard to begin inflating a balloon. A pressure of Kpa is required to initially inflate the balloon mL. What is the final pressure when the balloon has reached it's capacity of 1.2 L? 150 Kpa

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Combined Gas Law Describes the relationship between the temperature, volume, and pressure of a gas when the number of particles is constant

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Combined Gas Law P 1 V 1 =P 2 V 2 T 1 T 2 V 1 = Initial volume V 2 = Final volume T 1 = Initial temperature (K) T 2 = Final temperature (K) P 1 = Initial Pressure P 2 = Final Pressure

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A gas takes up a volume of 17 liters, has a pressure of 2.3 atm, and a temperature of 299 K. If I raise the temperature to 350 K and lower the pressure to 1.5 atm, what is the new volume of the gas? If I have 2.9 L of gas at a pressure of 5 atm and a temperature of 50 0 C, what will be the temperature of the gas if I decrease the volume of the gas to 2.4 L and decrease the pressure to 3 atm? If I have 17 liters of gas at a temperature of 67 0 C and a pressure of atm, what will be the pressure of the gas if I raise the temperature to 94 0 C and decrease the volume to 12 liters? 136 atm 160 K 30.6 L

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Still Confused? Check out the website for more practice problems Come to clinic Search the internet for even more practice problems

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