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Gas Laws Section 3.2. Gas and Pressure Pressureresult of force distributed over an area.

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Presentation on theme: "Gas Laws Section 3.2. Gas and Pressure Pressureresult of force distributed over an area."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gas Laws Section 3.2

2 Gas and Pressure Pressureresult of force distributed over an area

3 Gas and Pressure The wider the arrow, the greater the force. Which has the greatest pressure? The least pressure?

4 What causes pressure? In a gas, its all about collisions –Atoms in a gas are constantly moving Collisions push against container and create pressure

5 What affects pressure? 1)Temperature of gas 2)Volume of gas 3)Number of particles in gas

6 Temperature and Pressure Overall, increasing the temperature increases the pressure Higher temperature increases particle speed energy collisions pressure

7 Volume and Pressure Overall, decreasing the volume increases the pressure Less space means more collisions collisions pressure

8 Number of Particles and Pressure Overall, increasing the number of particles increases the pressure More particles means more collisions collisions pressure

9 The Gas Laws Charless Law Boyles Law

10 Charless Law Jacques Charles Collected data on temperature and volume

11 Charless Law Extended line to hit x-axis

12 Charless Law Temperature at which the volume is 0L is – C, or 0K. Absolute zero Volume of gas is directly proportional to the temperature (in Kelvin) if pressure and particle number are same

13 Charless Law V 1 =V 2 T 1 T 2 V 1 = Initial volumeT 1 = Initial temperature (K) V 2 = Final volumeT 2 = Final temperature (K)

14 Sample Problems 1.Steps: Identify any knowns as either V1, T1, V2, or T2 2.Make sure that all temperature values are in Kelvin 3.Plug knowns in equation 4.Double-check that answer and units make sense

15 A sample of gas at 101.3kPa had a volume of 1.2L at 100 o C. What would its volume be at 0 o C at the same pressure? V f = 0.88L A balloon had a volume of 75L at 25 o C. To what does the temperature need to raised in order for the balloon to have a volume of 100L at the same pressure? T f = 124 o C

16 Boyles Law Robert Boyle Collected data on pressure and volume

17 Boyles Law

18 Volume of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure if the volume and particle number are same

19 Boyles Law P 1 V 1 =P 2 V 2 V 1 = Initial volumeP 1 = Initial pressure V 2 = Final volumeR 2 = Final pressure

20 Sample Problems 1.Steps: Identify any knowns as either V1, P1, V2, or P2 2.Plug knowns in equation 3.Double-check that answer and units make sense

21 The volume of the lungs is measured by the volume of air inhaled or exhaled. If the volume of the lungs is L during exhalation and the pressure is KPa, and the pressure during inhalation is KPa, what is the volume of the lungs during inhalation? L It is hard to begin inflating a balloon. A pressure of Kpa is required to initially inflate the balloon mL. What is the final pressure when the balloon has reached it's capacity of 1.2 L? 150 Kpa

22 Combined Gas Law Describes the relationship between the temperature, volume, and pressure of a gas when the number of particles is constant

23 Combined Gas Law P 1 V 1 =P 2 V 2 T 1 T 2 V 1 = Initial volume V 2 = Final volume T 1 = Initial temperature (K) T 2 = Final temperature (K) P 1 = Initial Pressure P 2 = Final Pressure

24 A gas takes up a volume of 17 liters, has a pressure of 2.3 atm, and a temperature of 299 K. If I raise the temperature to 350 K and lower the pressure to 1.5 atm, what is the new volume of the gas? If I have 2.9 L of gas at a pressure of 5 atm and a temperature of 50 0 C, what will be the temperature of the gas if I decrease the volume of the gas to 2.4 L and decrease the pressure to 3 atm? If I have 17 liters of gas at a temperature of 67 0 C and a pressure of atm, what will be the pressure of the gas if I raise the temperature to 94 0 C and decrease the volume to 12 liters? 136 atm 160 K 30.6 L

25 Still Confused? Check out the website for more practice problems Come to clinic Search the internet for even more practice problems


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