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Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 A Gas 4 Uniformly fills any container. 4 Mixes completely with any other gas 4 Exerts.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 A Gas 4 Uniformly fills any container. 4 Mixes completely with any other gas 4 Exerts."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 A Gas 4 Uniformly fills any container. 4 Mixes completely with any other gas 4 Exerts pressure on its surroundings.

2 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 2 Pressure 4 is equal to force/unit area 4 SI units = Newton/meter 2 = 1 Pascal (Pa) 4 1 standard atmosphere = 101,325 Pa 4 1 standard atmosphere = 1 atm = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr

3 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3 Boyles Law * Pressure Volume = Constant (T = constant) P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 (T = constant) V 1/P (T = constant) ( * Holds precisely only at very low pressures.)

4 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 A gas that strictly obeys Boyles Law is called an ideal gas.

5 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 Charless Law The volume of a gas is directly proportional to temperature, and extrapolates to zero at zero Kelvin. V = bT (P = constant) b = a proportionality constant

6 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 6 Charless Law

7 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 7 Avogadros Law For a gas at constant temperature and pressure, the volume is directly proportional to the number of moles of gas (at low pressures). V = an a = proportionality constant V = volume of the gas n = number of moles of gas

8 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 8 Ideal Gas Law 4 An equation of state for a gas. 4 state is the condition of the gas at a given time. PV = nRT

9 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 9 Ideal Gas Law PV = nRT R = proportionality constant = L atm mol P = pressure in atm V = volume in liters n = moles T = temperature in Kelvins Holds closely at P < 1 atm

10 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 10 Standard Temperature and Pressure STP P = 1 atmosphere T = C The molar volume of an ideal gas is liters at STP

11 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11 Daltons Law of Partial Pressures For a mixture of gases in a container, P Total = P 1 + P 2 + P

12 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 12 Kinetic Molecular Theory 1.Volume of individual particles is zero. 2.Collisions of particles with container walls cause pressure exerted by gas. 3.Particles exert no forces on each other. 4.Average kinetic energy Kelvin temperature of a gas.

13 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13 The Meaning of Temperature Kelvin temperature is an index of the random motions of gas particles (higher T means greater motion.)

14 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 14 Effusion: describes the passage of gas into an evacuated chamber. Diffusion: describes the mixing of gases. The rate of diffusion is the rate of gas mixing.

15 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 15 Effusion: Diffusion:

16 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16 Real Gases Must correct ideal gas behavior when at high pressure (smaller volume) and low temperature (attractive forces become important).

17 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 17 Real Gases corrected pressure corrected volume P ideal V ideal


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