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13-3: The Gas Laws

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What are the Gas Laws? The Gas Laws: are mathematical representations of the interaction between the four variables of gas: 1)Pressure 2)Volume 3)Temperature 4)Quantity of a Gas

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The First Law: Boyles Law Robert Boyle (1627-1691): English Chemist/Physicist, one of the first scientists to note that gases particles are spread out from one another. Most famous experiment involved trapping air in a J-shaped tube, while changing its pressure and measuring its volume. The experiment included mercury inside the tube, which moved and balanced out between the two sides when Boyle increased the atm. pressure. But how did this help Boyle learn anything?

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The Pressure-Volume Relationship Boyle wanted to know, Is there a relationship between pressure and the volume of a gas? The answer is YES!

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What exactly is Boyles Law? Boyles Law states: if the temperature of a given gas remains unchanged, the product of the pressure times the volume has a constant value.

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How Can Boyles Law Help You? Boyles law can help you to determine different qualities without having to measure them. P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 What is the mathematical relationship between pressure and volume? inverse

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The Second Law: Charless Law Jacques Charles too determined a relationship between gas variables. He did this by performing an experiment in which he kept the amount of the gas and its pressure constant. He discovered that the results of his experiment, when graphed, made a straight line with a positive slope when volume was plotted against temperature.

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The Temperature-Volume Relationship Charles proved that volume of a gas is directly proportional to its temperature. It was determined by scientists that the lowest temperature your can reach is absolute zero. Which is equal to -273.15 o C. Matching absolute zero, you must have an absolute temperature. Since the Kelvin scale is only measured in positive units, and its zero coincides with absolute zero, you use this when relating temperature with volume.

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But, What Is Charless Law? Charless Law States: at constant pressure, the volume of a fixed amount of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. V 1 T 2 = V 2 T 1

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The Third Law: Avagadros Law We all know who the Italian Chemist, Amedeo Avagodro is, and what he discovered. However, he also created a hypothesis that puzzled scientists in his times, and wasnt accepted until decades later!

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The Amount-Volume Relationship Avagodros Law States: equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain an equal number of particles. Avagadros Law also states two main points: 1) all gases show the same physical behavior, 2) the larger the volume of a gas, the greater number of particles within the gas.

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The Fourth Law: Daltons Law John Dalton (1766-1844): English chemist who was one of the first scientists to consider mixtures of gases. After numerous experiments he was able to determine that each gas in a mixture exerts the same pressure that it would if it were alone (not in a mixture). Each gas gives a pressure in a mixture, they each give a Partial Pressure.

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Daltons Law Of Partial Pressures Daltons Law Of Partial Pressure States:the sum of partial pressures of all the components in a gas mixture is equal to the total pressure of the gas mixture To sum it up in an equation, it is written like this: P T =P a + P b + P c +... Where P T equals the total of all pressures, and the sub letters mark a different gas in the mixture.

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Chapter 11 Preview Objectives

Chapter 11 Preview Objectives

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