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The Gas Laws Boyle Charles Gay-Lussac Avogadro Daltons Grahams Law

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Boyles Law Pressure and Volume have an inverse relationship in gases P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 If temperature and # particles is the same, if you increase pressure, the volume will decrease and vice versa

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Charles Law Temperature and Volume have a direct relationship V 1 = V 2 T 1 = T 2 If P and n are constant, If you decrease the temperature, the volume will decrease.

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Gay-Lussacs Law Direct relationship between pressure and temperature P 1 = P 2 T 1 = T 2 If the temperature increases, the pressure will increase as well and vice versa.

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Avogadros Law At the same temperature and pressure, gases occupying the same volume must have the same number of PARTICLES The same number of collisions must be happening. V = kn where k is a proportionality constant I mol of any gas @ STP = 22.4 L

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Gas Laws Boyles Law, Charles Law and Gay- Lussacs Law can be calculated independently from the COMBINED GAS LAW P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 T 1 = T 2

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Gas Laws Boyles Law P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 T 1 = T 2

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Charles Law P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 T 1 = T 2 Gas Laws

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Gay Lussacs Law P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 T 1 = T 2 Gas Laws

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Grahams Law Diffusion – the movement of particles from regions of higher density to regions of lower density Effusion – the passage of a gas under pressure through a tiny opening Grahams Law of diffusion – the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of the gass density Heavy molecules effuse and diffuse slower than smaller molecules

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Sample Problem – Grahams Air is a mixture of many gasses. Nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide are the largest components of air. If a balloon is filled today with air allowed to sit overnight, some of the gas will escape through tiny holes in the rubber. What gas would you expect to find the LEAST of inside the balloon the next day. What gas would you expect to find the most of?

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Daltons Law of Partial Pressures Partial Pressure – the pressure of each gas in a mixture The total pressure of a gas is a sum of the pressure of its parts P total = P A + P B + P C +…..

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Daltons Practice Problem A mixture of oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen gases has a total pressure of 0.97 atm. What is the partial pressure of oxygen if the partial pressure of carbon dioxide is 0.70 atm and the partial pressure of nitrogen is 0.12 atm?

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A given sample of gas occupies 523 mL at 1.00 atm. The pressure is increased to 1.97 atm, while the temperature remains the same. What is the new volume of the gas?

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A sample of oxygen gas has a volume of 150.0 mL at a pressure of 0.947 atm. What will the volume of the gas be at a pressure of 1.000 atm if the temperature remains constant?

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A balloon is inflated to 665 mL volume at 27 °C. It is immersed in a dry-ice bath at -78°C. What is its volume, assuming the pressure remains constant?

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Helium gas in a balloon occupies 2.5 L at 300.0K. The balloon is dipped into liquid nitrogen that is at a temperature of 80.0K. What will the volume of the helium in the balloon at the lower temperature be?

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An airosol can containing gas at 101 kPa and 22 °C is heated to 55°C. Calculate the pressure in the heated can.

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At 122 °C the pressure of a sample of nitrogen is 1.07 atm. What will the pressure be at 205°C assuming constant volume?

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