Presentation on theme: "Boyle Charles Gay-Lussac Avogadro Dalton’s Graham’s Law"— Presentation transcript:
1Boyle Charles Gay-Lussac Avogadro Dalton’s Graham’s Law The Gas LawsBoyleCharlesGay-LussacAvogadroDalton’sGraham’s Law
2Boyle’s LawPressure and Volume have an inverse relationship in gasesP1V1 = P2V2If temperature and # particles is the same, if you increase pressure, the volume will decrease and vice versa
3Charles’ LawTemperature and Volume have a direct relationshipV1 = V2T1 = T2If P and n are constant, If you decrease the temperature, the volume will decrease.
4Gay-Lussac’s Law P1 = P2 T1 = T2 Direct relationship between pressure and temperatureP1 = P2T1 = T2If the temperature increases, the pressure will increase as well and vice versa.
5Avogadro’s LawAt the same temperature and pressure, gases occupying the same volume must have the same number of PARTICLESThe same number of collisions must be happening.V = kn where k is a proportionality constantI mol of any STP = 22.4 L
6Gas LawsBoyle’s Law, Charles Law and Gay-Lussac’s Law can be calculated independently from the COMBINED GAS LAWP1V1 = P2V2T1 = T2
10Graham’s LawDiffusion – the movement of particles from regions of higher density to regions of lower densityEffusion – the passage of a gas under pressure through a tiny openingGraham’s Law of diffusion – the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of the gas’s densityHeavy molecules effuse and diffuse slower than smaller molecules
11Sample Problem – Graham’s Air is a mixture of many gasses. Nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide are the largest components of air.If a balloon is filled today with air allowed to sit overnight, some of the gas will escape through tiny holes in the rubber. What gas would you expect to find the LEAST of inside the balloon the next day.What gas would you expect to find the most of?
12Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures Partial Pressure – the pressure of each gas in a mixtureThe total pressure of a gas is a sum of the pressure of its partsPtotal = PA + PB + PC +…..
13Dalton’s Practice Problem A mixture of oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen gases has a total pressure of 0.97 atm. What is the partial pressure of oxygen if the partial pressure of carbon dioxide is 0.70 atm and the partial pressure of nitrogen is 0.12 atm?
14A given sample of gas occupies 523 mL at 1. 00 atm A given sample of gas occupies 523 mL at atm. The pressure is increased to 1.97 atm, while the temperature remains the same. What is the new volume of the gas?
15A sample of oxygen gas has a volume of 150. 0 mL at a pressure of 0 A sample of oxygen gas has a volume of mL at a pressure of atm. What will the volume of the gas be at a pressure of atm if the temperature remains constant?
16A balloon is inflated to 665 mL volume at 27°C A balloon is inflated to 665 mL volume at 27°C. It is immersed in a dry-ice bath at -78°C . What is its volume, assuming the pressure remains constant?
17Helium gas in a balloon occupies 2. 5 L at 300. 0K Helium gas in a balloon occupies 2.5 L at 300.0K. The balloon is dipped into liquid nitrogen that is at a temperature of 80.0K. What will the volume of the helium in the balloon at the lower temperature be?
18An airosol can containing gas at 101 kPa and 22°C is heated to 55°C An airosol can containing gas at 101 kPa and 22°C is heated to 55°C. Calculate the pressure in the heated can.
19At 122°C the pressure of a sample of nitrogen is 1. 07 atm At 122°C the pressure of a sample of nitrogen is 1.07 atm. What will the pressure be at 205°C assuming constant volume?