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Kick Starting the Hydrogen Economy with Stationary Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Natural Gas Presented on May 2, 2003 By Arshia Javaherian.

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Presentation on theme: "Kick Starting the Hydrogen Economy with Stationary Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Natural Gas Presented on May 2, 2003 By Arshia Javaherian."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kick Starting the Hydrogen Economy with Stationary Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Natural Gas Presented on May 2, 2003 By Arshia Javaherian

2 2 What If: 25% of the Worlds Energy Sources Disappear. 25% of the Worlds Energy Sources Disappear. The cost of fossil fuels rise dramatically. The cost of fossil fuels rise dramatically. No alternative fuel is ready for immediate commercialization. No alternative fuel is ready for immediate commercialization.

3 3 The Emergence of a middle class in China, Pakistan, India, and Mexico. The Emergence of a middle class in China, Pakistan, India, and Mexico. Developing Nations/War-torn Nations slow rise of consumption. Developing Nations/War-torn Nations slow rise of consumption. Fossil Fuels are finite. Fossil Fuels are finite. The Real Problem:

4 4 The Solution: Today: Stationary Hydrogen Fuel Cells (HFCs), Reforming Natural Gas into Hydrogen Today: Stationary Hydrogen Fuel Cells (HFCs), Reforming Natural Gas into Hydrogen Tomorrow: The Pure Hydrogen Economy Tomorrow: The Pure Hydrogen Economy

5 5 The Plan: Stationary HFCs reforming natural gas. Stationary HFCs reforming natural gas. Demonstrations. Demonstrations. Government support encouragement. Government support encouragement. The Industry takes off The Industry takes off Simultaneous Deployment of H 2 fueled fleets. Simultaneous Deployment of H 2 fueled fleets. Costs go down. Costs go down. Technology advances. Technology advances. Centralized H 2 production and improved transportation technology.. Centralized H 2 production and improved transportation technology.. Mass introduction of HFC vehicles. Mass introduction of HFC vehicles. Advanced production of hydrogen using wind, solar, and biomass. Advanced production of hydrogen using wind, solar, and biomass.

6 6 Timetable Source: British Petroleum

7 7 Hydrogen is Not an Immediate Energy Solution Hydrogen used in Fuel Cells will not be a ready supply if 25% of the Worlds Energy is unavailable tomorrow. Hydrogen used in Fuel Cells will not be a ready supply if 25% of the Worlds Energy is unavailable tomorrow. Nevertheless, if we begin the shift to Hydrogen as our central fuel today, we will never run out of energy. Nevertheless, if we begin the shift to Hydrogen as our central fuel today, we will never run out of energy.

8 8 Why Hydrogen? Environmentally clean. Environmentally clean. Completely renewable. Completely renewable. Present everywhere. Present everywhere. Present in our current energy resources. Present in our current energy resources. Storable. Storable. Nationally independent, individually independent Nationally independent, individually independent

9 9

10 10 The Basics: How A Fuel Cell Works

11 11 UTC Power PC25C Fuel Cell Power Plant 16.5 ft PC25C at Yankee Gas Services Office in Meriden, CT 9 ft

12 12 PC25C: Overview Maximum output is 200kW. In use since 1991. PC25 provides both heat and power,and can replace grid power. 40% efficient. Three main components: Fuel processor, power section, power conditioner.

13 13 The Power of 200 kW Application Category Typical Power Ratings Examples of Proposed Applications Portable 50 – 100 W Laptops, handheld electronics Lawn and garden equipment Residential/ Light Commercial 1 – 10 kW 10 – 80 kW Single or Multi-unit residential Premium, high reliability power for telecom, UPS, etc. Commercial / Small Scale Distributed Generation 80 –500 kW Hotel, School, commercial peakshaving Small to medium hospitals and office buildings

14 14 Units Currently Available Using Natural Gas On Site PlugPower, Inc. 5kW Nuvera Fuel Cells 5kW DCH Technology, Inc. 1, 3, 5, 10, 20, 40 kW UTC Fuel Cells 200 kW Siemens Westinghouse 250 kW FuelCell Energy, Inc. 250 kW

15 15 Onsite Reforming Types of Reforming Types of Reforming Steam Methane Steam Methane Partial Oxidation (POX) Partial Oxidation (POX) Plasma Torch Plasma Torch

16 16 How Steam Methane Reforming Works NG Reacts with Steam at 1500° to 1600° Fahrenheit and a nickel catalyst to strip out the H 2. NG Reacts with Steam at 1500° to 1600° Fahrenheit and a nickel catalyst to strip out the H 2. Result is unpure mixture of H 2, CO, CO 2, steam and unreacted Methane. Result is unpure mixture of H 2, CO, CO 2, steam and unreacted Methane. Mixture is cooled to 750°. Mixture is cooled to 750°. More steam is added, creating more H 2, and converting the CO to CO 2. More steam is added, creating more H 2, and converting the CO to CO 2. Remaining impurities are then extracted. Remaining impurities are then extracted.

17 17 Sequestering the Impurities: How to Keep it Clean Disposing of CO 2 by burying it deep in exhausted aquifers or in gas or oil reservoirs, or by piping it deep in the ocean. Disposing of CO 2 by burying it deep in exhausted aquifers or in gas or oil reservoirs, or by piping it deep in the ocean. Sequestering adds $1.80/GJ to the cost of Hydrogen Fuel from natural gas. Sequestering adds $1.80/GJ to the cost of Hydrogen Fuel from natural gas. Will this happen now? Will this happen now? Is this the price we pay for a clean future? Is this the price we pay for a clean future?

18 Why Natural Gas?

19 19... When Natural Gas Is so expensive; Is so expensive; Is so unpredictable in price and availability; Is so unpredictable in price and availability; Is a cleaner fuel as it is used today, than when it is reformed into Hydrogen; and Is a cleaner fuel as it is used today, than when it is reformed into Hydrogen; and Is a Fossil Fuel, and not a renewable resource. Is a Fossil Fuel, and not a renewable resource.

20 20... Because Natural Gas Is Widely available; Widely available; The cheapest readily available source of H 2 ; The cheapest readily available source of H 2 ; The most efficient; The most efficient; Easy to distribute; Easy to distribute; One of the cleanest fossil fuels around; and One of the cleanest fossil fuels around; and A great transition to a Pure Hydrogen Economy. A great transition to a Pure Hydrogen Economy. And most importantly... And most importantly...

21 TO END THE CHICKEN AND EGG DILEMMA!

22 22 Barriers to the Hydrogen Economy Costs Costs Safety/ Consumer Skepticism Safety/ Consumer Skepticism Abundance of cheap fossil fuels Abundance of cheap fossil fuels

23 23 How Do We Get There? Reduce Costs: Reduce Costs: Bulk Purchases by State, Federal, Military, Universities, and Hospitals. Bulk Purchases by State, Federal, Military, Universities, and Hospitals. Government Subsidies, Incentives, and Grants. Government Subsidies, Incentives, and Grants. Improve Funding. Improve Funding. Public Relations Campaign addressing Cost and Safety Issues. Public Relations Campaign addressing Cost and Safety Issues. Keep using fossil fuels like we are. Keep using fossil fuels like we are.

24 Where Do We Stand Today?

25 25 Projected Cost of Stationary Fuel Cells

26 26 Cost ($/GJ) Hydrogen Production Method Central Production Natural Gas5-8 Coal9-12 Electrolysis of Water20 Gasified Biomass8-13 Distributed Production Onsite Natural Gas8-15 Electrolysis (hydroelectric)10-20 Electrolysis (wind)20-40 Electrolysis (solar/thermal)40-60 Electrolysis (photovoltaic)50-100 Delivery of hydrogen$/GJ 100 mi500 mi C-H 2 15-2060-70 L-H 2 1-26-7 Hydrogen is not prohibitivelyexpensive to get started today. With Gas priced at $3/MBTU

27 27 Government Funding

28 28 Government Subsidies, Incentives, and Grants Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy 2003 Climate Change Fuel Cell Buy- Down Program. 2003 Climate Change Fuel Cell Buy- Down Program. Qualifying Facility Qualifying Facility Illinois will pay for up to $3,000 or half of a HFC. Illinois will pay for up to $3,000 or half of a HFC.

29 29 Getting the Word Out Department of Energy Papers Department of Energy Papers A National Vision of Americas Transition to a Hydrogen Economy – To 2030 and Beyond. A National Vision of Americas Transition to a Hydrogen Economy – To 2030 and Beyond. National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap. National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap. Bushs State of the Union Address 1/28/03. Bushs State of the Union Address 1/28/03. FreedomCar FreedomCar FutureCarCongress FutureCarCongress Demonstrations sponsored by DoD and DoE. Demonstrations sponsored by DoD and DoE. What do we need? What do we need? Hollywood, Press, Full Ad Campaign Hollywood, Press, Full Ad Campaign

30 30 Remember the Hindenburg

31 31 Public Must Trust Hydrogen Ad Campaign, Ad Campaign, Government Support, Government Support, Codes and Standards, and Codes and Standards, and Begin the Dialog. Begin the Dialog.

32 32 Conclusion Stationary Hydrogen Fuel Cells Using Natural Gas Today Stationary Hydrogen Fuel Cells Using Natural Gas Today Supported by Government and Industry Supported by Government and Industry Pure Hydrogen Economy, Independent of Fossil Fuels Tomorrow. Pure Hydrogen Economy, Independent of Fossil Fuels Tomorrow.

33 To Sum Up: Have You Ever Wondered What its Like to Breath Fresh Air?


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