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Chapter 7 Fundamentals of Energy Fossil Fuels and Nuclear Energy.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Fundamentals of Energy Fossil Fuels and Nuclear Energy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 7 Fundamentals of Energy Fossil Fuels and Nuclear Energy

2 Oil and Natural Gas

3 Petroleum or crude oil, is not a single chemical compound Liquid petroleum, or oil, comprises a variety of liquid hydrocarbon compounds, which are made up of long molecular strings of carbon and hydrogen There are also a variety of gaseous hydrocarbons, collectively called natural gas, of which the compound methane (CH4) is the most common

4 How is Petroleum Created? Most geologists believe that crude oil and natural gas are the product of compression and heating of ancient organic materials over long geological time According to this theory, oil is formed from the preserved remains of prehistoric zooplankton and algae which have settled to the ocean bottom and are buried in large quantities under anaerobic conditions (no oxygen)

5 How is Petroleum Created? Over geological time this organic matter, mixed with mud, is buried under heavy layers of sediment As burial continues, the pressure and the temperature both increase, and chemical changes begin to occur The large, complex organic molecules are slowly broken down into long chains of hydrocarbon molecules, which have the consistency of asphalt

6 How is Petroleum Created? Specifically, the organic molecules change into a waxy material known as kerogen With time and if the kerogen is subjected to increased pressure and heat, it is further changed into liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons in a process known as catagenesis

7 How is Petroleum Created? A Texas Oilman would say, the petroleum matures It successively changing from heavy long hydrocarbon molecules into light simple gas and oil molecules The thick liquids become progressively thinner and more valuable or sweeter because it requires less processing at the oil refinery

8 How is Petroleum Created? Most of the maturation process occurs between 50 o to 100 o C (120 o to 210 o F) At higher temperatures the hydrocarbon converts to methane gas

9 The Time Factor The amount of time it takes to create petroleum is not precisely known However, petroleum is not found in rock that is younger than 1 or 2 million years old So, this is a slow process which takes million of years This means that we are using up oil much much faster than it can be replaced by nature We have essentially a finite supply of oil, then it will be gone

10 Oil and Gas Migration We want to extract the oil But the majority of the petroleum source rocks are fine-grained sedimentary rocks of low permeability The petroleum is spread throughout the rock and it is hard and uneconomical to extract large quantities of oil or gas quickly

11 Oil and Gas Migration To become economical, two things need to happen: The gas and/or oil must migrate out of the source rocks into more permeable rocks, which is called the reservoir rock And eventually, a large quantity must become concentrated and confined into a petroleum trap beneath an impermeable layer called a cap rock

12 Types of Petroleum Traps (A) A simple fold trap (B) fossilized coral reef (C) fault trap (D) salt dome

13 Hydrocarbon Uses A given oil field may contain a variety of hydrocarbon compounds and these different compounds have different uses Oil, gas and methane can all be found together

14 Enhanced Oil Recovery Some of the first oils wells were gushers, where the oil behaved like water in an artesian well Extracting oil using no techniques beyond pumping is called primary recovery This will only remove part of the oil deposit, usually a third or much less However, on the average, two-thirds of the oil is left in the ground

15 There are many secondary recovery techniques that allow addition oil to be extracted When flow falls off, water can be pumped into the reservoir rock, filling empty pore space and buoying up more oil Or you can pump in steam Or explosives can be set off in the oil zone, fracturing the rock and increasing permeability Or carbon dioxide gas can be pumped in Enhanced Oil Recovery

16 Secondary recovery can allow up to an additional 40% of the known oil reserves to be extracted All of these secondary recovery methods add to the cost of oil extraction Enhanced Oil Recovery

17 U.S. Energy Consumption The U.S. produces a staggering amount of energy per year, and about 80% of that energy currently comes from the fossil fuels coal, natural gas and oil

18 U.S. Energy Consumption The U.S. is the number one consumer of energy in the world and that consumption is rising We now use 100 quadrillion of BTUs per year

19 BTU In the United States, the term BTU (British Thermal Unit) is used to describe the energy content of fuels A BTU is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit 143 BTU is required to melt a pound of ice

20 BTU One quadrillion BTU is: 1,000,000,000,000,000 BTU That is a 1 followed by 15 zeros It would take over 31 million years to count to a quadrillion at the rate of one number per second But we are talking about 100 quadrillion

21 Supply and Demand Oil is commonly discussed in quantities of barrels, where one barrel equal 42 gallons Worldwide, over 500 billion barrels of oil has been consumed Unfortunately, half of that consumption occurred over the past 25 years The estimated proven oil reserves are about 1 trillion barrels Or about 50 years at the current rate of use

22 Proven World Oil Reserves 2008 Crude oil reserves in billions of barrels as of June 2008 Note that the Middle East has more oil than the entire rest of the world combined

23 Major World Users Like other resources, petroleum sources are very unevenly spread around the world For example, high-tech, densely-populated Japan has no oil, and must import 100% of the oil it needs

24 Imported oil More than half of the oil consumed by the U.S. has been imported Principle sources were Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Canada and Mexico

25 Imported oil In 1973, the U.S. dependence on foreign oil became a major political and strategic military concern, when OPEC shut off oil supplies

26 OPEC The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is a cartel of twelve countries made up of Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Venezuela

27 OPEC OPEC nations control two-thirds of the world's oil reserves and currently produce 36% of the world's oil, affording them considerable control over the global market

28 Strategic Petroleum Reserve The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was established in 1977 to store about 550 million barrels of oil for military & emergency use This was equal to a 115 day supply for 1977

29 Strategic Petroleum Reserve As of January 22, 2009, the current inventory was 702.8 million barrels This equates to 33 days of oil at current daily US consumption levels of 21 million barrels a day

30 U.S. Oil Supplies The U.S. originally had about 10% of all the worlds oil supply The U.S. has consumed over 200 billion barrels of oil

31 U.S. Oil Supplies We currently consume about 7 billion barrels a year For the past three decades we have been discovering new oil in the U.S. as fast as we were consuming But...

32 Declining Yields For land or offshore, the average yield from producing wells in the U.S. is declining, from a peak of 18.6 barrels per well per day in 1972 to 10.9 barrels in 2000

33 Declining Yields The total daily amount of oil produced in the U.S. has been steadily declining and is predicted to continue to decline

34 Hubberts Peak M. King Hubbert was an oil man who predicted in 1956 that oil production would follow a bell curve He was ostracized by the entire oil industry The main counter argument was that we were just beginning to use modern exploratory methods and we simply had no idea how much oil existed on Earth The sky was not falling!

35 He was right. Well kind of.... Hubberts Peak

36 Future Oil Prospects Many people think that as oil prices soar, there will be increased exploration and discovery of new reserves There is a finite amount of petroleum in the ground and we have found most of it Two-thirds of new exploratory wells come up dry The days of the gushers are over

37 Future Oil Prospects It is now very expensive to drill an exploratory oil well on land It cost typically $2 to $20 million dollars per well

38 Future Oil Prospects The costs for drilling offshore are substantially higher, easily over $100 million and up Drilling oils wells in the deep, abyssal plains of the open ocean may cost billions per well

39 U.S. Natural Gas Use The supply and demand picture for natural gas is similar to that for oil Natural gas provides about 25% of the energy used in the U.S. Until recently, it was believed that the U.S. has 200 trillion cubic feet of proven reserves And we import 15% of our natural gas

40 Natural Gas Reserves 2004 Natural gas reserves are more widely distributed

41 Natural Gas Reserves 2008 The Western Hemisphere, especially the United States, contains substantial proven reserves of natural gas

42 Burning Gas at the Well Head Note the bright lights in the Gulf

43 Very Deep Natural Gas At these depths, all petroleum molecules have been broken down into natural gas The gas is under tremendously high pressure and is typically dissolved into fluids such as saline brines The gas occurs in oil shale Deep exploratory wells have recently discovered that tremendous natural gas reserves exist at depths of several thousand feet

44 Oil Shale Oil shale is a generic name for rock that contains petroleum Oil shale is a misnomer The rock does not have be shale, it can be any of a variety of sedimentary rocks, such as sandstone or limestone There is actually so little oil in oil shale that it is useless Rather, the potential fuel in oil shale is natural gas

45 Distribution of Oil Shale The U.S. has what is believed to be the second largest known oil shale deposits in the entire world (China may be first) In the long run, this could provide a staggering amount of natural gas

46 Marcellus Shale The Marcellus Shale is a type of oil shale that is found through out the Eastern United States along the Appalachian Mountain range It is estimated to contain 500 trillion cubic feet of natural gas This could meet U.S. energy needs for a very long time

47 One of the extraction problems is that the Marcellus Shale ranges from 3000 to 9000 feet in depth below the surface Marcellus Shale

48 Fracking Recent advances in horizontal drilling techniques and hydraulic fracturing (called fracking) have made removing natural gas from the Marcellus Shale both possible and economic

49 Ban Hydraulic Fracturing Facebook.com Arguments against hydraulic fracturing center around the extent to which fracturing fluid used far below the earth's surface might pollute fresh water zones, contaminate surface or near-surface water supplies, impact rock shelf causing seismic events or lead to surface subsidence...

50 UT & Fracking News Sentinel [Dec. 2, 2012] The University of Tennessee plans to drill for natural gas in its research forest in Morgan and Scott counties, a proposal that would allow UT to lease its land to an oil and gas company and the study the environmental impacts of hydraulic fracturing...

51 U.S. Natural Gas Reserves In the past four years, the United States has increased its production of natural gas by 27% By 2020, the United States is expected to be the number one producer of natural gas in the entire world

52 Burning Ice Methane clathrate, also called methane hydrate or methane ice, is a solid form of water that contains a large amount of methane trapped within its crystal structure

53 Burning Ice About 10 years ago, it was discovered that extremely large deposits of methane clathrate occur under sediments on the ocean floors, usually along the coastlines

54 Burning Ice The size of these oceanic deposits is staggering For example, it has been estimated that over 1 quadrillion cubic feet of methane ice lies offshore of North and South Carolina alone There is more methane ice than all other fossil fuels combined

55 Burning Ice Methane is a far more efficient greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide The amount of methane locked in methane hydrates is estimated to be 3000 times more than is currently in the atmosphere Can global warming melt these methane ice deposits? This would profoundly increase the greenhouse effect

56 La Brea Tar Pits The Rancho La Brea Tar pits are a famous series of natural tar (asphalt) pits in Los Angeles

57 La Brea Tar Pits Pools of water covers the sticky tar, and for thousands of years, animals who tried to drink the water became trapped in the tar, creating a treasure trove of fossils The predators who fed on the trapped prey, also became trapped

58 La Brea Tar Pits Since 1901, over one million bones of Pleistocene animals have been removed by paleontologists, including saber-toothed cat and giant sloth

59 Oil Spills on land In general, oil spills on land are small and confined Pipe line ruptures, train wreaks, tanker truck accidents and illegal waste dumping are the most common sources of spill This spill in Siberia was burned off, but that creates airborne oil-smoke pollution

60 Casualty of Warfare In July 2006, Israel attacked the Hezbollah in Lebanon In the first week of the conflict, Israeli fighter planes struck the Jiyyeh power plant just south of Beirut The attack set ablaze five oil tanks and caused a 110,000 gallon fuel oil spill along the eastern Mediterranean coast

61 Casualty of Warfare A bad day at Beiruts beaches

62 Casualty of Warfare Because of the conflict, serious oil cleaning did not start until September, two months after the bombing The biggest losers were the endangered green sea turtles that could not lay that years clutch of eggs along the Lebanon beaches

63 Casualty of Warfare During the first Iraq war, Sadam had his retreating troops set over 800 oil wells in Kuwait on fire

64 Casualty of Warfare The fires consumed an estimated six million barrels of oil daily Their immediate consequence was a dramatic decrease in air quality, causing respiratory problems for many Kuwaitis

65 Casualty of Warfare The sabotage of the oil wells also impacted the desert environment, which has a limited natural cleansing ability Oil from the wells formed about 300 oil lakes that contaminated around 40 millions tons of sand and earth.

66 Oil and Water Dont Mix The news concentrates on major spills, but most oil spills are small, but in the course of a year, they can add up The U.S. Coast Guard reports that there are about 10,000 oil spills in U.S. waters each year, totaling 15 to 25 million gallons It is estimated that 600,000 tons of oil per year naturally escapes from permeable rocks into the oceans

67 Oil and Water Dont Mix When an oil spill occurs at sea, the oil, being less dense than water, floats The lightest, most volatile hydrocarbons start to evaporate immediately, causing air pollution Over several months, sunlight and bacteria action, can destroy up to 85% the oil, leaving thick asphalt lumps that can persist for many months

68 Oil and Water Dont Mix If a spill is small, it can be contained by floating barriers, and the oil skimmed off of the surface Chalk, wood shavings and peat moss have been used to soak up oil In big spills, detergent is added to the oil to speed up decomposition, but detergent is toxic to fish and birds

69 Oil and Animals Dont Mix Oil is toxic to marine life, causes water-birds to drown when their feathers become coated and decimates fish and shell fish populations

70 Oil and Animals Dont Mix Feathers can be cleaned of oil using soap and water, but it is very traumatic to the bird The survival rate is low

71 IXTOC 1 Oil Well Ixtoc I was an exploratory oil well platform in the Gulf of Mexico, about 600 miles south of Texas On June 3, 1979, the well suffered a blowout and became the largest unintentional oil well spill in history

72 IXTOC 1 Oil Well The oil caught on fire and the drilling platform collapsed 140 million gallons of oil spilled out into the Gulf The well was finally capped on March 23, 1980


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