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The Ideal Gas Ideal Gas Law Van der Waals Equation Distribution of Molecular Speeds.

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Presentation on theme: "The Ideal Gas Ideal Gas Law Van der Waals Equation Distribution of Molecular Speeds."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Ideal Gas Ideal Gas Law Van der Waals Equation Distribution of Molecular Speeds

2 Reading Question What is the SI unit of pressure? 1. The Nm 2 (Newton-meter-squared) 2. The atmosphere 3. The p.s.i. 4. The Pascal 5. The Archimedes

3 Reading Question What is the SI unit of pressure? 1. The Nm 2 (Newton-meter-squared) 2. The atmosphere 3. The p.s.i. 4. The Pascal 5. The Archimedes

4 Reading Question The ideal gas model is valid if 1. the gas density is low. 2. the gas density is high. 3. the temperature is low. 4. the gas pressure is large. 5. none of the above

5 Reading Question The ideal gas model is valid if 1. the gas density is low. 2. the gas density is high. 3. the temperature is low. 4. the gas pressure is large. 5. none of the above

6 Reading Question An ideal-gas process in which the volume doesnt change is called 1. isobaric. 2. isothermal. 3. isochoric. 4. isentropic.

7 Reading Question An ideal-gas process in which the volume doesnt change is called 1. isobaric. 2. isothermal. 3. isochoric. 4. isentropic.

8 The Ideal Gas Heat of Transformation Heat of fusion – the heat to transform a gram of substance from solid to liquid. Heat of vaporization – the heat to transform a gram of substance from liquid to gas. Sublimation – solid to gas Slope heat capacity Q time Q f = mL f Q v = mL v

9 The Ideal Gas Substance Melting point, K Lf, kJ/kg Boiling point, K Lv, kJ/kg Alcohol Copper Mercury Oxygen Sulfur Water Heat of Transformation

10 The Ideal Gas Sublimation Boiling Phase Diagram

11 The Ideal Gas Phase Diagram for Water

12 The Ideal Gas

13 Student Workbook freezing point at temperature T triple point boiling point at pressure p critical point sublimation at pressure p

14 Student Workbook boiling point temperature decreases

15 Class Question When you warm up CO 2 or dry ice it goes directly from a solid to a gas. This processes is called 1. critical point 2. sublimation 3. isochoric processes 4. isentropic processes 5. None of the above.

16 Class Question When you warm up CO 2 or dry ice it goes directly from a solid to a gas. This processes is called 1. critical point 2. sublimation 3. isochoric processes 4. isentropic processes 5. None of the above.

17 The Ideal Gas The Ideal Gas Law P pressure exerted by the gas (Pa) V volume of the gas N number of molecules in the gas (m 3 ) T temperature of the gas (K) k = 1.38X J/K Boltzmanns constant Most real gases obey this law with very slight deviations A mole is 6.022X10 23 molecules. R = N A k = J/Kmole universal gas constant

18 The Ideal Gas Quasi-static and Irreversible Processes Quasi-static and Irreversible Processes

19 The Ideal Gas Isochoric Processes Isochoric Processes

20 The Ideal Gas Isobaric Processes Isobaric Processes

21 The Ideal Gas Isothermal Processes Isothermal Processes

22 The Ideal Gas Isothermal Processes Isothermal Processes

23 Student Workbook because the liquid is not accelerating the pressure is less.

24 Student Workbook

25

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27 isochoricisothermalisobaric

28 Student Workbook

29 Class Question 1. T helium < T nitrogen 2. T helium = T nitrogen 3.T helium > T nitrogen 4.There is not enough information You have two containers of equal volume. One is full of helium gas. The other holds an equal mass of nitrogen gas. Both gases have the same pressure. How does the temperature of the helium compare to the temperature of the nitrogen?

30 Class Question 1. T helium < T nitrogen 2. T helium = T nitrogen 3.T helium > T nitrogen 4.There is not enough information You have two containers of equal volume. One is full of helium gas. The other holds an equal mass of nitrogen gas. Both gases have the same pressure. How does the temperature of the helium compare to the temperature of the nitrogen?

31 Class Question What is the ratio T f /T i for this process? (no change) 4. 5.

32 Class Question What is the ratio T f /T i for this process? (no change) 4. 5.

33 The Ideal Gas Kinetic Theory of the Ideal Gas

34 The Ideal Gas Kinetic Theory of the Ideal Gas

35 The Ideal Gas Real Gases Van der Waals Equation Takes into account 1.Size of the molecules 2.Interaction between the molecules


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