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1 High Performance, Low Emission Carburizing Furnace Atmosphere Generation & Control Using Rapid Laser-Based Gas Analysis October 11, 2000 Ronald R. Rich.

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Presentation on theme: "1 High Performance, Low Emission Carburizing Furnace Atmosphere Generation & Control Using Rapid Laser-Based Gas Analysis October 11, 2000 Ronald R. Rich."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 High Performance, Low Emission Carburizing Furnace Atmosphere Generation & Control Using Rapid Laser-Based Gas Analysis October 11, 2000 Ronald R. Rich Atmosphere Recovery, Inc. and Ralph W. Larson Dana Corporation

2 2 Topics Presented Carburizing Atmosphere Technology & IssuesCarburizing Atmosphere Technology & Issues Atmosphere Gas Monitoring Needs & MethodsAtmosphere Gas Monitoring Needs & Methods ARI Laser Gas Analyzer (LGA)/Controller SystemARI Laser Gas Analyzer (LGA)/Controller System Improved Process Development HistoryImproved Process Development History New Approaches to Gas Carburizing with LGANew Approaches to Gas Carburizing with LGA Metallurgical Findings & Technology StatusMetallurgical Findings & Technology Status

3 3 Carburizing Use & Purpose Improves Steel Wear Resistance on Part Surfaces (Adds Carbon)Improves Steel Wear Resistance on Part Surfaces (Adds Carbon) Maintains Steel Toughness at Part Depth (Lower Carbon)Maintains Steel Toughness at Part Depth (Lower Carbon) Parts to Heated to High Temperatures in a Gas AtmosphereParts to Heated to High Temperatures in a Gas Atmosphere Atmosphere Provides Reactive Chemistry Containing Carbon in Gas Form in a Reducing EnvironmentAtmosphere Provides Reactive Chemistry Containing Carbon in Gas Form in a Reducing Environment Typical Parts (Gears) Typical Furnace (Batch)

4 4 Traditional Carburizing Atmosphere Endogas Air Natural Gas Composition: CO~20%, N 2 ~39%, H 2 ~39%, 1% CH 4, Balance: CO 2, H 2 O, O 2 At Metal Surface: 2H 2 +2CO+3Fe Fe 3 C+2H 2 O+CO 2 3Fe + CH 4 Fe 3 C + 2H 2 Exhaust Stack

5 5 Typical Carburizing Operation

6 6 Major Concerns Related to Atmosphere Carburizing Process Control Problems with Existing TechnologiesProcess Control Problems with Existing Technologies –Variable Production Part Parameters (Case Depth, %Carbon) –Many Atmosphere Constituents Inferred –Inefficient Control Algorithms to Employed to Reduce Sooting –Limited Warning of Equipment Maintenance Process Improvement Potential (Over 60 Years Old)Process Improvement Potential (Over 60 Years Old) –Improved Part Quality & Performance –Reduced Atmosphere Consumption –Furnace Cycle Time Reductions –Higher Performing Surface Treatment Options High Levels of Carbon Monoxide Air EmissionsHigh Levels of Carbon Monoxide Air Emissions Inefficient Use of Atmosphere Gas and EnergyInefficient Use of Atmosphere Gas and Energy

7 7 Most Industrial Furnace Atmosphere Gases Similar Carburizing, Carbonitriding, & NitridingCarburizing, Carbonitriding, & Nitriding –N 2, CO, H 2, CO 2, H 2 O, CH 4, O 2, NH 3, CH 3 OH Atmosphere Tempering and AnnealingAtmosphere Tempering and Annealing –N 2, H 2, CO, CO 2, H 2 O, CH 4, O 2, NH 3, Ar Copper and Aluminum BrazingCopper and Aluminum Brazing –N 2, H 2, CO, CO 2, H 2 O, CH 4, O 2, NH 3, Ar Powdered Metal SinteringPowdered Metal Sintering –N 2, CO, H 2, CO 2, H 2 O, C x H y, O 2

8 8 Typical Atmosphere Control Measures Only One Gas Species TypesTypes –Zirconia Oxygen Probe – Measures Oxygen –Dew Point Meters – Measures Water Vapor –Electrochemical Cells – Low Range Single Gases BenefitsBenefits –Lower Capital Cost –Limited Calibration Requirements DisadvantagesDisadvantages –All Other Gas Constituents Not Measured or Controlled –Many Assumptions About Other Gas Constituents Needed –Requires High Atmosphere Flows for Adequate Control –Inaccurate Correction for Most Atmosphere Variances –Limited Process Control Variation & Improvement Options

9 9 Carburizing Atmosphere Monitoring Improved With Infrared Analyzers Usually Measures Only Three More GasesUsually Measures Only Three More Gases –Carbon Monoxide –Carbon Dioxide –Methane Does Not Measure Other Significant GasesDoes Not Measure Other Significant Gases –Oxygen (Additional Sensor Required) –Water Vapor (Theoretically Could) –Hydrogen –Nitrogen and Inert Gases Non-Linear ResponseNon-Linear Response –Accurate Only Within Limited Concentration Range –High/Low Constituent Concentration Interference –Reference Cell Requires Frequent Calibration

10 10 Benefits of Complete Atmosphere Gas Analysis Improved Carbon & Nitriding Potential ControlImproved Carbon & Nitriding Potential Control Improved Oxidation/Reduction Potential ControlImproved Oxidation/Reduction Potential Control Reduction in Atmosphere ConsumptionReduction in Atmosphere Consumption Allows Use of Non-Standard Atmosphere GasesAllows Use of Non-Standard Atmosphere Gases Control of Cleaner Furnace AtmospheresControl of Cleaner Furnace Atmospheres –Hydrogen/Nitrogen/Inert Combinations –Carbon Dioxide/Hydrocarbon Mixtures –Novel Mixtures for Improved Performance –Sooting Reduced or Eliminated Early Warning of Some Furnace Maintenance IssuesEarly Warning of Some Furnace Maintenance Issues Potential for Reduced Furnace Cycle TimesPotential for Reduced Furnace Cycle Times

11 11 Additional Benefits if Complete Atmosphere Analysis is Rapid (15 Seconds or Less) Real Time Process Monitoring, Control and R&DReal Time Process Monitoring, Control and R&D Correlation with Existing Furnace SensorsCorrelation with Existing Furnace Sensors Non-Equilibrium Atmosphere OperationNon-Equilibrium Atmosphere Operation Accurate Carburizing Rate AssessmentAccurate Carburizing Rate Assessment Greater Potential for Reduced Furnace Cycle TimesGreater Potential for Reduced Furnace Cycle Times Drastic Reduction in Atmosphere ConsumptionDrastic Reduction in Atmosphere Consumption Efficient Use of Non-Standard Atmosphere GasesEfficient Use of Non-Standard Atmosphere Gases Early Warning of Many Furnace Maintenance IssuesEarly Warning of Many Furnace Maintenance Issues Improved Furnace Performance and Safety MonitoringImproved Furnace Performance and Safety Monitoring

12 12 Conventional Complete Gas Analysis Technologies Gas Chromatography (GC)Gas Chromatography (GC) –Moderate Price ($15,000 - $60,000) –Slow (2 Minutes+) –Frequent Calibration and Service –Carrier Gas Needed Mass Spectroscopy (MS)Mass Spectroscopy (MS) –Higher Price ($50,000 - $120,000) –Fast if Vacuum Already Present (Can be Slow if Not) –Expensive to Maintain –Equal Mass Gases Require Additional Analysis (GC)

13 13 Unique Frequency Shift for Each Type of Chemical BondUnique Frequency Shift for Each Type of Chemical Bond Measures Gases of All Types (Except Single Atoms)Measures Gases of All Types (Except Single Atoms) Rapid Real Time Response Rates PossibleRapid Real Time Response Rates Possible Signal Directly Proportional to Number of Gas AtomsSignal Directly Proportional to Number of Gas Atoms 0-100% Gas Concentrations Measured with One Detector0-100% Gas Concentrations Measured with One Detector Resolution and Accuracy Depends On:Resolution and Accuracy Depends On: –Laser Power and Optics Variation (Including Cleanliness) –Gas Concentration and Pressure –Molecular Bond Type –Background and Scattered Radiation –Optical and Electronic Detector Circuitry Raman Gas Analysis Principals

14 14 Some Atmosphere Raman Shift Spectra Source:NASA

15 15 Laser Raman Analysis Technologies External Cavity Raman Lasers (Under Development)External Cavity Raman Lasers (Under Development) –Remote Fiber Optic Sensor Heads –Higher Price Because of High Laser Power ($75,000 - $300,000) –Fast Only if Laser Power High –Expensive to Operate (Power, Cooling, Probe Tip?) –Laser Beam Dangerous –Less Accurate Internal Cavity Raman Laser (ARIs LGA Design)Internal Cavity Raman Laser (ARIs LGA Design) –Gas Sample Flows Through Instrument –Moderate Price ($25,000 - $60,000) –Fast if Detectors Selective –Low Cost Operation –Safe Low Power Laser Beam

16 16 Multiple Port ARI LGA System Furnace Gas 1 In Plasma Cell Mirror Polarizer Prism & Mirror Laser Beam Gas Sample Tube Sample Pump & Pressure Control Individual Gas Detectors Gas Outlet Filter Individual Gas Detectors Furnace Gas 2 In Filter Furnace Gas 3 In Filter Generator Gas In Filter Valve Assembly

17 17 ARI LGA Detector Features Gas Analysis CapabilitiesGas Analysis Capabilities –8 Gas Species Detected Simultaneously –Fast Detector Response (50 milliseconds) –50 Parts per Million to 100% Concentration Range –More Accurate than NIST Calibration Gas Mixtures –No Zero and Span Gas Requirement (Optional) –Design Allows Customized Selection of Gas Species Lifetime and ServicingLifetime and Servicing –Two to Five Year Component Lifetimes –Ten Minute Detector Exchange –Individual Components Can Be Serviced and Cleaned

18 18 Additional LGA System Features Integrated Sample Flow Control & MonitoringIntegrated Sample Flow Control & Monitoring –Specialized Long Life Sample Filters (One Year +) –Internal Sample Pump and Calibration Valves –Low Volume Sample Gas Flows (200 ml/minute) –Electronic Flow and Pressure Monitoring –Optics and Enclosure Inerting (Standard for Atmosphere Analysis) –Multiple Sample Ports (16 + Optional) –Sample Line Purge and Back-flush (Optional) –High Dew Point Atmosphere Operation (Optional) Integrated Electronics & SoftwareIntegrated Electronics & Software –Open Hardware Pentium/Pentium III PC –Open Software Windows NT 4.0/Win2000 Based –Many Local and Remote Displays and Data Storage Options –Available Analog and Digital I/O Options –Multiple Configurable Process and PLC Interface Options

19 19 Interior View of Subsystems Pentium PC Based Monitor/Controller Win NT or DOS OS & 4.3 GB Hard Disk Optional I/O Card Slots Laser & Gas Sensor Assembly Display, Keyboard, Serial & Network Ports Gas Flow Control Assembly Gas Sample Pump Multi-Port Control Options

20 20 Exterior View NEMA 4/12 Unit CoolingUnit Sample, Calibration & Inerting Gas Inputs Model 4EN Furnace Atmosphere Analyzer Electrical & Communication (131 o F Maximum)

21 21 Interior View NEMA 12 Unit LGA Unit Sub-Assembly Power & Network Connections Integrated Sample Filters IntegratedMulti-portValves Calibration & Purge Gas Regulators

22 22 Sample Software Control Screens Main Control Screen Atmosphere Analysis Values

23 23 LGA Carburizing Applications External Atmosphere Generator Monitoring & ControlExternal Atmosphere Generator Monitoring & Control Complete Furnace Atmosphere Control Including:Complete Furnace Atmosphere Control Including: –Communications with PLC-Based Furnace Controller –Real-Time Carbon Potential Correction of Oxygen Sensor –Reduced Atmosphere Gas Usage & In-Situ Generation Stand-Alone PC Based Control System Integrating:Stand-Alone PC Based Control System Integrating: –Complete Furnace Atmosphere Control –Improved Safety Monitoring –Burner & Over Temperature Modules –Oxygen Probes & Quench Tank Monitoring –Part Load and Tray Tracking –Interface with Plant SCADA and SPC Systems

24 24 Use for Rapid Generator Monitoring Expanded View Showing Rapid Variations

25 25 New Approaches to Carburizing Demonstrated at Dana Corp. Spicer Off-Highway Components Plymouth, MN

26 26 Plant Products and Processes ProductsProducts –Primarily Large Off-Road Axles and Gearsets –Some Interdivisional Component Carburizing Atmosphere Heat Treat ProcessesAtmosphere Heat Treat Processes –Five Carburizing Furnaces –Three Endothermic Generators

27 27 Improvements Initiated Because of New Air Emission Concerns Previously Recognized Air EmissionsPreviously Recognized Air Emissions –Smoke from Quenching –Burner Combustion Gases Unrecognized Air Emissions IssuesUnrecognized Air Emissions Issues –Carbon Monoxide (CO) from Atmosphere Use –Comes from Atmosphere Generation, Leakage and Flaring - 10,000 to 200,000 ppm –Original Potential to Emit Estimate Tons Per Year (TPY)

28 28 Rapid Gas Analysis Process Development Environmental & Air Quality Monitoring Environmental & Air Quality Monitoring –Furnace Gas and Emission Testing –Options for Industrial Furnace Process Modification Identified Atmosphere Recovery, Inc. Founded Atmosphere Recovery, Inc. Founded –Carburizing Heat Treat Furnace Atmosphere Recovery Research –Dana & USDOE Sponsored Research Program –Intent to Produce Systems Constructed and Tested Prototype Systems Constructed and Tested Prototype Systems –Numerous Papers and Presentations –Plant and Process Energy and Environmental Awards – Laser Gas Analyzer Product Demonstrations – Laser Gas Analyzer Product Demonstrations –Endothermic and Exothermic Applications –Tests with Non-Standard Atmospheres

29 29 Batch Furnace Modifications Side Pipe Waste Gas Exit with CapSide Pipe Waste Gas Exit with Cap Backup Safety Pressure Control Box and DialsBackup Safety Pressure Control Box and Dials Electronic Endothermic Gas ControlElectronic Endothermic Gas Control Communication with Existing ControlsCommunication with Existing Controls Finding - Minimal Modifications NeededFinding - Minimal Modifications Needed

30 30 Typical Test Load 2,000 lbs. Driveshaft Crosses Side View Top View

31 31 Initial Demonstration - Atmosphere Recovery Process IR-GC Later LGA Part of System

32 32 Prototype System Prototype Development, Assembly and TestingPrototype Development, Assembly and Testing First Full Scale Operation - Aug. 6, 1997First Full Scale Operation - Aug. 6, 1997 Finding - Process Worked and Increased Furnace ProductivityFinding - Process Worked and Increased Furnace Productivity IR-GC (Later Replaced by LGA)

33 33 Inter-Cavity Raman & GC Comparison on ARI Trial

34 34 System Location in Plant Explosion Resistant Test Area Explosion Resistant Test Area

35 35 Later Demonstrations - Integral Atmosphere Generation LGA is Integral Part of System

36 36 Example Results for Rapid Carburizing

37 37 Parts Testing – Typical Load Two Test PinsTwo Test Pins –One by Plant –One by Heavy Axle Division (HAD) 3 or 6 Standard Heat Code 8620 Planet Gears Per Load3 or 6 Standard Heat Code 8620 Planet Gears Per Load –Tested by Plant –Standard Load Locations –Three As Tempered –Sometimes Three as Quenched Three 8620/25/30 Test Pinions (Production Parts)Three 8620/25/30 Test Pinions (Production Parts) –Standard Load Locations –All As Tempered –One Tested by Plant –Two Tested by HAD Two Carbon Profiles (Bar by HAD, Rod by Plant)Two Carbon Profiles (Bar by HAD, Rod by Plant)

38 38 Case Depth and Profile of Parts RC 50 Value Case Depth Always Obtained FasterRC 50 Value Case Depth Always Obtained Faster Improvement Percentages Depends Primarily on Desired Final Case Depth (Shallower is Faster)Improvement Percentages Depends Primarily on Desired Final Case Depth (Shallower is Faster) Less Case Depth Variation in LoadLess Case Depth Variation in Load Hardness and Carbon Profile ConsistentHardness and Carbon Profile Consistent Profiles Consistent with Higher Surface Carbon PotentialsProfiles Consistent with Higher Surface Carbon Potentials Surface Hardness Also AcceptableSurface Hardness Also Acceptable Surface Cleanliness not Significant (8620/8625/8630)Surface Cleanliness not Significant (8620/8625/8630)

39 39 Retained Austenite/Carbides in Parts ARI Process Better (Lower Levels)ARI Process Better (Lower Levels) Levels Can Be Adjusted to Suit Desired ResultLevels Can Be Adjusted to Suit Desired Result Controllable Even with Wide Atmosphere FluctuationsControllable Even with Wide Atmosphere Fluctuations Baseline ARI Accelerated

40 40 Grain Boundary Oxidation in Parts ARI Process Better (Lower Levels)ARI Process Better (Lower Levels) Levels Can Be Adjusted to Suit Desired ResultLevels Can Be Adjusted to Suit Desired Result Controllable Even with Wide Atmosphere FluctuationsControllable Even with Wide Atmosphere Fluctuations Baseline ARI Accelerated

41 41 Metallurgical Findings Summary Batch Cycle Times Faster (Load to Unload)Batch Cycle Times Faster (Load to Unload) –Same Process Temperature (Typically 1750 Deg. F.) –Case Depth of.040 – 35% to 50% Faster –Case Depth of.065 – 20-30% Faster Less Case Depth Variation Though the LoadLess Case Depth Variation Though the Load Controllable Carbon Content/Hardness ProfileControllable Carbon Content/Hardness Profile Controllable Retained Austenite LevelsControllable Retained Austenite Levels Controllable Iron Carbide LevelsControllable Iron Carbide Levels Wide Variation in Atmosphere Constituents ToleratedWide Variation in Atmosphere Constituents Tolerated Advanced Soot Control Algorithms Do Not Affect PartsAdvanced Soot Control Algorithms Do Not Affect Parts All Parts Released for ProductionAll Parts Released for Production

42 42 ARI Technology Status Laser Gas Analyzer/Controller Systems Sales & ServiceLaser Gas Analyzer/Controller Systems Sales & Service –Carburizing (Current Sales) –Annealing (Current Sales) –Nitriding (Future Sales) –Brazing (Future Sales) –Powdered Metal Sintering (Future Sales) –Casting/Drawing (Future Sales) Integral Atmosphere Production Units Ready for OrderIntegral Atmosphere Production Units Ready for Order Improved Atmosphere Recovery Prototype Ready for TrialImproved Atmosphere Recovery Prototype Ready for Trial Corporate Demonstration Sites WantedCorporate Demonstration Sites Wanted


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