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1 Gender Equality in the in the Oil and Gas Industry Dorothy Lele Dec. 12, 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Gender Equality in the in the Oil and Gas Industry Dorothy Lele Dec. 12, 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Gender Equality in the in the Oil and Gas Industry Dorothy Lele Dec. 12, 2011

2 2 OutlineOutline 1. Background on the oil and gas industry 2. Norways Oil for Development program 3. Gender issues in the oil and gas industry 4. Making connections for more effective development 1. Background on the oil and gas industry 2. Norways Oil for Development program 3. Gender issues in the oil and gas industry 4. Making connections for more effective development

3 1.Background: the oil and gas industry 3

4 PetroleumPetroleum Petroleum is a complex liquid mixture of hydrocarbons, (organic compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen & carbon). Technically, petroleum refers only to crude oil, but is commonly used to include all liquid, gaseous, and solid hydrocarbons. Petroleum is a complex liquid mixture of hydrocarbons, (organic compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen & carbon). Technically, petroleum refers only to crude oil, but is commonly used to include all liquid, gaseous, and solid hydrocarbons. 4

5 Petroleum Industry The petroleum industry is divided into: the upstream oil industry: the search for, recovery and production of crude oil and natural gas. the midstream oil industry: processes, stores, markets and transports the downstream oil industry: the refining and processing of crude oil and natural gas, and the sale and distribution of thousands of products derived from crude oil. The petroleum industry is divided into: the upstream oil industry: the search for, recovery and production of crude oil and natural gas. the midstream oil industry: processes, stores, markets and transports the downstream oil industry: the refining and processing of crude oil and natural gas, and the sale and distribution of thousands of products derived from crude oil. 5

6 Petroleum Products Petroleum products include: gasoline (petrol), diesel, natural gas, propane, kerosene, liquified petroleum gas (LPG), jet fuel, heating oil, asphalt, lubricants, plastics, fertilizers, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, antifreeze…. 6

7 UPSTREAM INDUSTRY Exploration: search for rock formations with oil or natural gas deposits, involves geophysical prospecting, blasting and/or exploratory drilling. Well development: construction of wells Production: extracting the hydrocarbons, separating the mixture of liquids, gas, solids and water, and removing unwanted components Site abandonment: plugging the well(s) and restoring the site Exploration: search for rock formations with oil or natural gas deposits, involves geophysical prospecting, blasting and/or exploratory drilling. Well development: construction of wells Production: extracting the hydrocarbons, separating the mixture of liquids, gas, solids and water, and removing unwanted components Site abandonment: plugging the well(s) and restoring the site 7

8 MID and DOWNSTREAM INDUSTRIES The midstream and downstream industries include: transport: pipelines, shipping refineries and processing plants (including petrochemical plants) natural gas distribution petroleum product distribution retail outlets. The midstream and downstream industries include: transport: pipelines, shipping refineries and processing plants (including petrochemical plants) natural gas distribution petroleum product distribution retail outlets. 8

9 Upstream / Downstream Oil and gas industry Activities and skills Oversight & regulation Upstream: exploration and production geologists, geophysicists engineers: petroleum, geological, chemical, mechanical, envt, etc. drilling rig operators and field workers Ministry of Petroleum Ministry of Natural or Mineral Resources Environmental Protection independent commission or board Downstream: refining, transport, distribution, and marketing chemical & process engineers and technicians, mechanical, civil, envt, etc. pipeline transportation workers retail business operators Ministries of Energy, Commerce & Industry commercial regulation 9

10 10 2. Norways Oil for Development program

11 Oil for Development Assists developing countries to manage their petroleum resources sustainably. Works at the institutional level, building the capacities of public authorities responsible for petroleum resources. Focuses on three themes: Resource management Revenue management Environmental management Assists developing countries to manage their petroleum resources sustainably. Works at the institutional level, building the capacities of public authorities responsible for petroleum resources. Focuses on three themes: Resource management Revenue management Environmental management 11

12 OfD Support Oil and gas industry OfD SupportOfD Partners Upstream: E&P, pipelines resource, revenue and environmental management Ministry of Petroleum or Mineral Resources Agencies for Environmental Protection Downstream: products

13 OfD Support 1. Government agencies of 23 countries 8 Core Countries: Angola, Bolivia, Ghana, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sudan, Timor-Leste, Uganda 2. Local civil society organizations (through Norwegian and international NGOs): Revenue Watch Institute (RWI), WWF, Norwegian organizations 1. Government agencies of 23 countries 8 Core Countries: Angola, Bolivia, Ghana, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sudan, Timor-Leste, Uganda 2. Local civil society organizations (through Norwegian and international NGOs): Revenue Watch Institute (RWI), WWF, Norwegian organizations 13

14 14 3. Gender issues in the oil and gas industry

15 15 Gender issues in the oil and gas industry a) Local impacts of upstream petroleum activities b) Downstream: access and use of products c) Government revenues or take d) Environmental impacts e) Employment equity a) Local impacts of upstream petroleum activities b) Downstream: access and use of products c) Government revenues or take d) Environmental impacts e) Employment equity

16 16 a) Local Impacts of Petroleum Activities: exploration & production Differential impacts on women and men of: employment and economic opportunities population displacements and resettlement disruptions in natural ecosystems and livelihoods depending on them; community disruptions and conflicts from influx of large numbers of men for jobs social vices Differential impacts on women and men of: employment and economic opportunities population displacements and resettlement disruptions in natural ecosystems and livelihoods depending on them; community disruptions and conflicts from influx of large numbers of men for jobs social vices

17 17 Local Impacts of Petroleum Activities: accidents, spills, pollution Differential impacts of ecosystem damage (to water quality and availability, fisheries, crops, forest resources, etc) on women and men: health impacts (including reproductive health) of contaminated water, air and soil economic impacts: loss & damage to livelihoods nutritional impacts: loss & damage to food sources Differential impacts of ecosystem damage (to water quality and availability, fisheries, crops, forest resources, etc) on women and men: health impacts (including reproductive health) of contaminated water, air and soil economic impacts: loss & damage to livelihoods nutritional impacts: loss & damage to food sources

18 18 Gender bias in benefits and costs Major benefits of employment and compensation mostly go to men. Costs of community disruptions and environmental degradation fall most heavily on women. Major benefits of employment and compensation mostly go to men. Costs of community disruptions and environmental degradation fall most heavily on women.

19 19 Social support and compensation funding 1. Oil/gas company CSR (corporate social responsibility) projects 2. Government projects funded through taxes on oil companies often directed towards projects benefiting women (water, health, education) 1. Oil/gas company CSR (corporate social responsibility) projects 2. Government projects funded through taxes on oil companies often directed towards projects benefiting women (water, health, education)

20 20 b) Access and use of products

21 Energy for Cooking 2.7 billion people (=women) rely on biomass and inefficient stoves for cooking LPG (bottled gas) as the main energy source for switching from biomass for cooking but mostly for urban higher income groups (price and distribution issues) LPG for cooking is not a priority for many governments 21

22 Access to other petroleum products: fuels, plastics, fertilisers Same as usual: womens lack of information, income and control over resources 22

23 c) Government take Government take = taxes, royalties, production sharing agreements, or direct ownership Norwegian pension fund: investment of financial returns for the benefit of future generations Identify gender differences in the benefits and risks of the use of revenues may be possible where OfD is advising partners on revenue issues 23

24 24 d) Environmental Impacts: Climate Change

25 Gender dimensions of climate change Oil and gas production and use results in gas emissions and climate change Poor people/women are the most vulnerable to climate change, because they depend on natural resources for livelihoods and lack resources to adapt Women are affected through: Gender roles: household maintenance, food, water and fuel provision Cultural practices: female seclusion/ protection, mobility survival skills, property rights Participation in decision-making 25

26 26 e) Employment Equity: womens presence

27 Women work on oil rigs too Chennai, India

28 28 Womens increasing presence in oil & gas Women make up about 21 percent of workforce Increasing efforts to attract and retain women: studies show a clear correlation between gender diversity and higher profitability Still few women in management positions Barriers to women in oil and gas: Field work Limited accommodation at field sites/drilling platforms Attitudes: not a suitable job for women Women make up about 21 percent of workforce Increasing efforts to attract and retain women: studies show a clear correlation between gender diversity and higher profitability Still few women in management positions Barriers to women in oil and gas: Field work Limited accommodation at field sites/drilling platforms Attitudes: not a suitable job for women

29 29 3. Gender issues in the oil and gas industry a) Local impacts of upstream petroleum operations b) Downstream: access and use of products c) Government revenues or take d) Environmental impacts e) Employment equity a) Local impacts of upstream petroleum operations b) Downstream: access and use of products c) Government revenues or take d) Environmental impacts e) Employment equity

30 Information and experience World Bank gender mainstreaming in the extractive industries: focus on mining Norway & WB Petroleum Governance Initiative includes a study on the gender dimensions of the oil and gas industries Broken Promises: Gender Impacts of the WB- financed West African and Chad-Cameroon Pipelines pipelines.html pipelines.html Oil for Development: Mozambique, Timor-Leste, Uganda World Bank gender mainstreaming in the extractive industries: focus on mining Norway & WB Petroleum Governance Initiative includes a study on the gender dimensions of the oil and gas industries Broken Promises: Gender Impacts of the WB- financed West African and Chad-Cameroon Pipelines pipelines.html pipelines.html Oil for Development: Mozambique, Timor-Leste, Uganda 30

31 4. Making connections Oil and gas: upstreamupstream downstreamdownstream Electric power Biomass, biofuels Alternative technologies ConstraintsConstraints Appropriate technologies Energy end uses Lighting Cooking Communications Mechanical Energy sources Availability & access Pricing and credit Water Pumping InformationInformation

32 32 Making connections Need for: 1. Comprehensive treatment of all energy needs and sources – more attention to the demand side 2. Connections between policies and programs for all subsectors – for more effective policies and use of resources 3. Ensuring social and gender dimensions are central to all policies and solutions – for more effective development Need for: 1. Comprehensive treatment of all energy needs and sources – more attention to the demand side 2. Connections between policies and programs for all subsectors – for more effective policies and use of resources 3. Ensuring social and gender dimensions are central to all policies and solutions – for more effective development

33 Thank you 33


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