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Feb. 6, 20012001 ASME/API Gas-Lift Workshop1 Testing and Modeling Gas-Lift Valves by Ken Decker, Decker Technology Cleon Dunham, Oilfield Automation Consulting.

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Presentation on theme: "Feb. 6, 20012001 ASME/API Gas-Lift Workshop1 Testing and Modeling Gas-Lift Valves by Ken Decker, Decker Technology Cleon Dunham, Oilfield Automation Consulting."— Presentation transcript:

1 Feb. 6, ASME/API Gas-Lift Workshop1 Testing and Modeling Gas-Lift Valves by Ken Decker, Decker Technology Cleon Dunham, Oilfield Automation Consulting

2 Feb. 6, ASME/API Gas-Lift Workshop2 Testing and Modeling Gas-Lift Valves Outline Gas-lift valves are importantGas-lift valves are important API Recommended Practice 11V2API Recommended Practice 11V2 Gas-lift Valve Performance Clearinghouse (VPC)Gas-lift Valve Performance Clearinghouse (VPC) VPC membersVPC members Valves tested by VPCValves tested by VPC Typical VPC resultsTypical VPC results How member companies use VPC resultsHow member companies use VPC results Future plansFuture plans

3 Feb. 6, ASME/API Gas-Lift Workshop3 Gas-Lift Valves Are Important Gas-lift valves are needed to: Allow gas-lift wells to unload (work down) to the desired operating depthAllow gas-lift wells to unload (work down) to the desired operating depth Remain open and transmit enough gas to allow transfer to the next valveRemain open and transmit enough gas to allow transfer to the next valve Remain in good condition during unloadingRemain in good condition during unloading –Not be eroded by completion fluid Close and remain closed when lifting from deeperClose and remain closed when lifting from deeper –Not leak –Not allow well fluids to back flow into the annulus Re-open when needed for re-start (kick off)Re-open when needed for re-start (kick off)

4 Feb. 6, ASME/API Gas-Lift Workshop4 API Recommended Practice 11V2 Prior to API RP 11V2: Gas-lift valve open/close calculations based on steady state force/balance equationGas-lift valve open/close calculations based on steady state force/balance equation Gas passage based on Thornhill-CraverGas passage based on Thornhill-Craver –These didn't represent real performance in dynamic operation –Gas-lift designers were forced to use rules of thumb API RP 11V2 published in January, 1995API RP 11V2 published in January, 1995 –Provided standards for gas-lift valve testing & modeling –But offered no specific process to implement these standards on a routine basis

5 Feb. 6, ASME/API Gas-Lift Workshop5 Gas-Lift Valve Performance Clearinghouse (VPC) VPC formed in 1996 as JIP (joint industry project) to test & model valves VPC tests a gas-lift valve to determine:VPC tests a gas-lift valve to determine: –When it will open/re-open under dynamic conditions –How far it will open under various upstream & downstream pressure conditions –How much gas it will transmit at each opening –When it will close under dynamic conditions If a valve does not open, move, or close correctly, this is detectedIf a valve does not open, move, or close correctly, this is detected Typically, one example valve of each type or model is testedTypically, one example valve of each type or model is tested

6 Feb. 6, ASME/API Gas-Lift Workshop6 Gas-Lift Valve Performance Clearinghouse (VPC) Based on these tests, the VPC develops accurate gas-lift valve performance models To develop these models, the VPC determines:To develop these models, the VPC determines: –Accurate opening pressure, at operating temperature –Accurate closing pressure, at operating conditions –Flow characteristic (Cv) of valve –Load rate of bellows and/or spring –Maximum effective stem travel These models can be used for:These models can be used for: –Gas-lift design –Gas-lift performance analysis –Comparing actual vs. theoretical performance

7 Feb. 6, ASME/API Gas-Lift Workshop7 Original and Current Members of the VPC VPC Member Companies Initial Members2001 Members ChevronChevron Edinburgh Petroleum ServicesExxon/Mobil (pending) Exxon PDVSA (pending) Shell InternationalShell International Weatherford Weatherford

8 Feb. 6, ASME/API Gas-Lift Workshop8 Gas-Lift Valves Tested and Modeled by the VPC Gas-Lift Valves and Orifices Tested/Modelled by the VPC Through " IPO Gas-Lift Valves Altec AT1-CF, Camco BK, Weatherford R-1, Weatherford R-1BL, Camco/Merla NM-16R, McMurry Macco R-1D, McMurry Macco JR-STDN, McMurry Macco C-1 1" PPO Gas-Lift Valves Camco BKF-6, Camco BKR-5, Camco SRF-10, McMurry Macco RF-1, Weatherford RF-1BL 1" Alternative Operation Gas-Lift Valves Altec AT1-VL, Weatherford RPDV-2, Camco/Merla LNM-31R, Camco/Merla WFM-14R 1.5" IPO Gas-Lift Valves Camco R-20, Weatherford R-2, Camco/Merla N-17R, McMurry Macco C2 1" Gas-Lift Orifices Camco NOVA, Camco DCR-DK

9 Feb. 6, ASME/API Gas-Lift Workshop9 Typical VPC Gas-Lift Valve Performance Plot Camco BK. 1" IPO VPC Performance Model Various Port Sizes No Choke 12/64" 20/64" 16/64"

10 Feb. 6, ASME/API Gas-Lift Workshop10 How Member Companies Use VPC Results For example, in Shell: Only gas-lift valves that have been tested and modeled by the VPC are recommended for useOnly gas-lift valves that have been tested and modeled by the VPC are recommended for use –Any valve found to be inadequate is not recommended for use VPC gas-lift valve models have been implemented in WinGLUEVPC gas-lift valve models have been implemented in WinGLUE –They are used in gas-lift design & performance analysis In some cases, valves that have been found to be inadequate have been redesigned or replace by the manufacturerIn some cases, valves that have been found to be inadequate have been redesigned or replace by the manufacturer –This is clearly a win/win for all concerned

11 Feb. 6, ASME/API Gas-Lift Workshop11 Future Plans of the VPC In 2001 and beyond, the VPC members have agreed to: Continue gas-lift valve testing and modelingContinue gas-lift valve testing and modeling –Valves/orifices nominated by users –Selected new valves –Several valves of a type/model to check for consistency Conduct appropriate evaluationsConduct appropriate evaluations –Potential for erosion during unloading –Effect of chokes on erosion potential –Potential life cycle of bellows –Impact of various metallurgies

12 Feb. 6, ASME/API Gas-Lift Workshop12 Other Companies are Welcome to Join the VPC The VPC is a "joint industry project." It is funded and controlled by its membersIt is funded and controlled by its members –It is not a profit making organization –Its purpose is to advance gas-lift performance through improved gas-lift valve understanding –Any gas-lift operator or service company is welcome –The VPC meets annually, usually in October, to agree on the budget and plan for the next year Member companies have found great value in:Member companies have found great value in: –Having accurate, reliable information on their valves –Having accurate performance models of their valves –Being able to screen out valves that are not satisfactory

13 Feb. 6, ASME/API Gas-Lift Workshop13 Testing and Modeling Gas-Lift Valves Conclusions Most gas-lift wells require gas-lift valves to lift effectivelyMost gas-lift wells require gas-lift valves to lift effectively Valves do not perform as previously assumedValves do not perform as previously assumed –The steady state force balance equation is not sufficient –Thornhill-Craver can not accurately predict gas passage To effectively design and analyze gas-lift wells, we must understand gas-lift valve performanceTo effectively design and analyze gas-lift wells, we must understand gas-lift valve performance –API RP 11V2 provides the needed standards –The VPC provides the mechanism to implement these standards for the industry


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