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6.0 Fuels: Oil/Natural Gas Frank R. Leslie, B. S. E. E., M. S. Space Technology 1/28/2010, Rev. 2.1.1 (321) 674-7377

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Presentation on theme: "6.0 Fuels: Oil/Natural Gas Frank R. Leslie, B. S. E. E., M. S. Space Technology 1/28/2010, Rev. 2.1.1 (321) 674-7377"— Presentation transcript:

1 6.0 Fuels: Oil/Natural Gas Frank R. Leslie, B. S. E. E., M. S. Space Technology 1/28/2010, Rev (321)

2 In Other News... Chrysler developing ENVI plug-in hybrid vehicle drive for many models, but Fiat may own them by then Large oil companies are under Federal ruling on January 20, 2009 in the Southern District of Florida because of ethanol-containing boat fuel. The fuel destroys fiberglass fuel tanks, absorbs water and phase separation. --- Maritime Reporter 1/27/09 Lawsuit filed in Tampa to recover damages Jan., could be huge settlement Pres. Obama stated that he wants offshore oil drilling in the State of the Union address, also nuclear plus weatherization of buildings High speed rail at 168 to 180 mph in Florida

3 6. Events: Oil and Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) 1955 South African Sasol CTL started 1973 Arab oil embargo due to Israel-Egypt Six-Day War 1981 Saudi Ghawar field peaked at 5.7Mbbl/day 1990 Iraq invaded Kuwait 1991 First Gulf War 3/19/2003 US invades Iraq 2005 Kuwaits second largest Burgan field exhausted, 1.7Mbbl/day 10/2008 Crude hits $147/bbl intraday high 2009 Crude oil falls to $33 1/20/2009 Crude oil at $38, $46 on 1/23/09, $73 1/

4 6.0.1 Overview: Oil and Natural Gas Petroleum or crude oil is a complex hydrocarbon mixture (mostly gasoline) that is refined to get its constituents or feedstock for chemical transformations Oil (crude) and natural gas are often found in the same area, and thus are treated together in this presentation Oil provides our principal transportation fuels of gasoline and diesel, while natural gas provides heating Coal-to-liquids results in primarily gasoline-like fluids and is just mentioned here

5 Quads normalize the energy 6.0 Overview: Oil and Natural Gas Reserves Revised Ref.: National Energy Technology Lab. Why Combustion? CD_ROM

6 6.0 About This Presentation 6.1 Oil Consumption 6.2 Oil Refining 6.3 Natural Gas 6.4 Natural Gas Turbine Peaking Power 6.5 Oil/Gas Reserves 6.6 Oil/Gas Transportation Conclusion

7 6.1 Oil Source and Sink Chart Source: Oil Market Basics Petroleum Flow, 2006 (Million Barrels per Day)

8 6.1.1 Oil Process in the Wind River Mts. Of WY The Wind River Range is northeast of the oil/gas fields shown above. Note the slip that traps the oil and gas. To the right is my 1996 Sierra Club trail service trip crew at Wind River Cirque of the Towers - -- whos that middle guy with the cowboy hat?

9 6.1.1 Amount of oil to be produced and consumed The World consumption of oil was some 74,500,000 barrels of oil per day in 2000 What does this large number represent, and how can we relate to it? [What do 2 million Mac hamburgers look like?] Some interesting figures follow by permission of Jim Woodfin, former Chair of the Sierra Club Turtle Coast Group, Melbourne FL (January, 2003 group meeting)

10 Matters of Scale: World Oil Consumption How can we relate to such large numbers? 74,500,000 Barrels Per Day (year 2000) 3,129,000,000 Gallons Per Day 130,375,000 Gallons Per Hour 2,172,917 Gallons Per Minute 36,215 Gallons Per Second

11 a Matters of Scale: World Oil Consumption 36,215 Gal/Sec of Oil flowing in West Brevard County ? Gal/Sec – St. Johns Melbourne, Florida Revised

12 b Matters of Scale: World Oil Consumption 36,215 Gal/Sec of Oil flowing in the St. Johns River? ? Gal/Sec – St. Johns Melbourne, Florida River Flow gallons/second 3,115 average 9,000 high Water digitally replaced with oil

13 a Matters of Scale: World Oil Consumption 36,215 Gal/Sec of Oil ? Gal/Sec – St. Johns Jacksonville FL Revised

14 b Matters of Scale: World Oil Consumption 36,215 Gal/Sec of Oil ? Gal/Sec – St. Johns Jacksonville FL 43,610 gallons/second A little too much!

15 a Matters of Scale: World Oil Consumption 36,215 Gal/Sec of Oil How Long to fill Lake Okeechobee? (1,200,000,000,000 gallons) Revised

16 b Matters of Scale: World Oil Consumption 36,215 Gal/Sec of Oil How Long to fill Lake Okeechobee? (1,200,000,000,000 gallons) 394 days Revised

17 Oil History – A chronology Oil was first discovered in ancient times, and asphalt was used to caulk the seams of ships 1814 First oil well in Caldwell, Ohio discovered oil instead of salt water; Darn! (:-(( Oil discovered in Burkesville KY; 50,000 bbls total; they wanted salt water Why? Hint: food Samuel Kerr distilled oil shale to produce oil 1857 E. L. Drake hired to drill for industrial oil in Pennsylvania 1866 First gusher in Texas 1866 PA oil was about $6 a barrel (~$35, 2004; $73, 2010) 1901 Lucas Spindletop gusher near Beaumont, Texas, and Big Oil began

18 6.1.2 Old Oil Well Field in Pennsylvania See worlds-first-oil-field/ for a 3-D photo; adjust browser photo width to match your eye spacing, stare at infinity, and watch the well pop into 3-D worlds-first-oil-field/ There are perhaps 20 stereopticon slides at this site

19 Oil History – A chronology 1901 Oil found in Louisiana 1905 Oil found in California 1920 Chevron-Texaco prospecting in the Middle East 1932 California Arabian Standard Oil Company found oil in Bahrain 1938 SOCAL discovered oil at Damman, Kuwait In the 1950s, oil and natural gas replaced coal due to the lower pollution and ease of use; natural gas predominated Oil is produced mainly in Saudi Arabia, Russia, and US Some important products are plastics, detergents, drugs, fertilizers, pesticides, explosives, paint rubber, epoxies, recording disks, Crayons Known reserves will be economically gone in mid-21 st century (2050)

20 6.1.3 Diesel-Electric Peaking Plants Large 16-cylinder diesel engines can turn generators These start quickly, and thus can meet rapidly changing load conditions while coal plants take ~6 hours to heat These units are often packaged in semi-trailers so that they can be hauled to where they are needed and leased These diesel units have a total installed capacity of less than 2 million kW (1955) In 2004, diesels represent about 1% of US power pages/heat_engines/DEG.htm

21 6.2 Oil Refining Crude oil contains many compounds; not homogenous Refining separates the various compounds by evaporation temperature (fractional distillation) Conversion causes chemical changes to make a different product by recombining the molecular chains Methane (CH 4 ), 1 C; propane, 3C; butane, 4C; pentane, 5C; hexane, 6C; heptane, 7C; octane, 8C Octane rating is percentage of octane mixed with heptane and determines pre-ignition point in a standard engine (knocking is bad for the engine) See for a good animated drawing of distilling crude oil

22 6.2.1 Crude Oil is A Complex Mixture! The mixture contains many useful products that must be refined out of the crude oil Distillate fuel oil is diesel oil or home heating oil Gasoline, a complex mixture, is much of the barrel

23 6.2.9 Will Oil Shale Save Us? From Peoples Gas briefing to FECC Colorado mined a lot in ~1970s before cheap oil returned

24 6.3 Natural Gas (NG) History – A chronology yr BCE Gas seeps discovered in Iran Marco Polo saw gas seeps in 1264 at Baku "Eternal Fires of the Apsheron Peninsula Gas discovered in England 1815 NG found in US while digging a well for salt brine 1859 Fredonia Gas Light Co. formed (West New York) 1860 Liquefied natural gas used as a portable fuel 1885 Coffee roasted by NG and air flame 1905 NG discovered in California 1918 Texas well produced 70 million cubic feet of gas per day

25 6.3.1 Natural Gas Heating Values StateLocationBtu/cu. ft. KSLeavenworth964 MOKansas City967 LACaddo Parish1039 OKPark City1076 CALos Angeles1108 TXAbilene1129 OHCleveland1150 WVCharleston1172 OKKiefer Zerban and Nye, 1952 Heat content affects the price (true of hot peppers, too! [see Scoville units])

26 6.3.2 Butane, Propane, Etc. Energy Densities NameCompositionBtu/lb PropaneC3H8C3H ButaneC 4 H Coke-oven gas19320 Blast-furnace gas1208 Water gas (coke) mixture of CO and H GasolineC 8 H 18 (C 6 H 14 to C 12 H 26 ) JP-4 jet fuel95% kerosene18725 No. 2 fuel oilC 14 H 30 to C 20 H HydrogenH2H Crude oil, Avg. US mixture19589 Harder, 1982; Zerban and Nye, 1952

27 6.3.3 Energy Content and Selection Residual Oil150 MMBtu/1000 gallons Distillate Oil140 MMBtu/1000 gallons Natural Gas1,050 MMBtu/million cubic feet (MMCF) Propane 94 MMBtu/1000 gallons (MM is the industries old- style million unit used in commerce)

28 6.4.1 Gas Turbine Peaking Systems such as Oleander Energy Plant at Cocoa FL $200M, 650 MW peaking plant west of Cocoa near I-95 Located close to gas pipeline and transmission lines Five 150 MW aeroderivative gas turbines spin generators (derived from aircraft engines) Muffled hot exhaust is directed straight up into the air A more-efficient design would use heat recovery steam generators to cool the exhaust by making steam That type of combined cycle plant would not qualify under the previous PURPA law, so that wasnt built PURPA was intended for solar and wind energy systems, but was written inadvertently such that other merchant plants could be licensed; unintended consequences

29 6.4.2 Oleander Energy Plant MW Now owned by the Southern Company 5 x 160 MW The turbine is directly coupled to the generator and jointly turns at 3,600 RPM. The first four combustion turbines produce electricity at 18,000 volts before being stepped up in a transformer to 230,000 volts for transmission, while the 5th combustion turbine produces electricity at 18,000 volts before being stepped up in a transformer to 138,000 volts for transmission.

30 6.4.3 The Mighty Snow Natural Gas Engine Photo by F. Leslie, 2003 This Snow engine ran on natural gas in a New Jersey water plant It produced 400hp, less than some SUVs Its now in the Florida Flywheelers Museum near Ft. Meade, FL (Sorry, I could only get the right end in the photo) Feb 24 thru 28, th Annual Antique Engine & Tractor Show

31 6.5.1 Estimated Crude Oil Reserves Production Oil in billion barrels to May

32 6.5.1 US Imported Crude Oil Crude Oil Imports (Top 15 Countries) (Thousand Barrels per Day) CountryNov-09Oct-09YTD 2009Nov-08YTD 2008 CANADA1,9841,8581,9272,0281,949 MEXICO9511,0151,0991,2961,192 NIGERIA SAUDI ARABIA ,4871,514 VENEZUELA ,0801,040 IRAQ ANGOLA KUWAIT BRAZIL ALGERIA COLOMBIA RUSSIA ECUADOR EQUATORIAL GUINEA LIBYA

33 6.5.2 Estimated Natural Gas Reserves Natural Gas in trillion cubic feet

34 6.6 Oil/Gas Transportation LNG is vented at ~100 psi NG is piped to customers at ~0.5 psi text _02.html Oil Tanker LNG Tankers

35 Conclusion: Oil & Natural Gas Oil is an energy-dense liquid, easy to store and transport, and thus works well in vehicles Many chemicals are made from oil, thus burning it may prevent a better, higher use for materials Choices are made from the economics and cost of doing business; supply and demand sets prices Natural gas is the feedstock for fertilizers, plastics, etc. 97% of hydrogen is now made from natural gas How can enough hydrogen be made to replace existing transportation fuels?

36 References: Books Pickens, T. Boone. The First Million is the Hardest. NY: Crown Business, 2008, p Harder, Edwin L. Fundamentals of Energy Production. NY: John Wiley & Sons, Zerban, Alexander H. and Edwin P. Nye. Power Plants. Scranton: International Textbook Co., Anon. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., Brower, Michael. Cool Energy. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press, , TJ807.9.U6B76, Duffie, John and William A. Beckman. Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes. NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 920 pp., 1991 Gipe, Paul. Wind Energy for Home & Business. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Pub. Co., , TJ820.G57, Patel, Mukund R. Wind and Solar Power Systems. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1999, 351 pp. ISBN , TK1541.P , Sørensen, Bent. Renewable Energy, Second Edition. San Diego: Academic Press, 2000, 911 pp. ISBN

37 References: Websites, etc. Woodfin, Jim. Personal communication. Slides on oil rate from a Sierra Club meeting, 1/23/ a good animated refining process ______________________________________________________________________________- Site devoted to the decline of energy and effects upon population Federal Energy Regulatory Commission

38 Olin Engineering Complex 4.7 kW Solar PV Roof Array Questions?

39 Slide stockpile follows! Older slides follow this one. Look at these if you have interest or time. Its difficult to decide what to leave out of the lecture to save time!

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