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CORPORATE SAFETY TRAINING

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Presentation on theme: "CORPORATE SAFETY TRAINING"— Presentation transcript:

1 CORPORATE SAFETY TRAINING
COMPRESSED GAS SAFETY CORPORATE SAFETY TRAINING OSHA 29 CFR WELCOME 1

2 COURSE OBJECTIVES Discuss Compressed Gas Program Requirements.
Discuss Safety Inspection Requirements. Discuss The Types of Compressed Gases. Discuss Properties of Compressed Gases. Discuss Basic Skills in Hazard Recognition & Control. Discuss OSHA’s Requirements for Gas Safety. Discuss the Compressed Gas Association’s involvement. Discuss Use, Storage and Maintenance Requirements. 3

3 BASIS FOR THIS COURSE Employers are Responsible for Compressed Gas Safety. Compressed Gases Contain a Variety of Hazards. Compressed Gases are Maintained Under High Pressure. Compressed Gases are Extremely Hazardous Training Greatly Lessens the Probability of Disaster. This Training Helps Improve: Safety Morale Productivity Employee well-being 4

4 COURSE ATTENDEES Gas Users Safety Committees Purchasing Agents
Department Managers First Line Supervisors Maintenance Managers Shipping and Receiving Employees Accident Investigation Team Members 5

5 FORWARD REGARDING COMPRESSED GAS SAFETY -
Know the gas you are using, or don’t use it! “Never let your name, and the word “dead” be used in the same sentence.” Billy N. Ring, Fire Captain Dayton Regional HAZMAT Coordinator 27 Years Experience 6

6 APPLICABLE REGULATIONS
29CFR - SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 101 - COMPRESSED GASES (GENERAL) 8

7 CONSENSUS STANDARDS COMPRESSED GAS STORAGE AREA
COMPRESSED GAS ASSOCIATION CGA P-1 - SAFE HANDLING OF COMPRESSED GASES - Over 100 Other CGA Safety Manuals DANGER COMPRESSED GAS STORAGE AREA 9

8 GENERAL PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS
ALL EMPLOYERS MUST: Assign Responsibility Establish a Written Program Conduct Gas Safety Training Develop Safe-Use Procedures Conduct Work Area Inspections Maintain a Safe Work Environment Conduct Regular Program Evaluations Ensure Proper Storage and Maintenance 13

9 TRAINING REQUIREMENTS
THE EMPLOYER MUST PROVIDE TRAINING: Properties of the Gases Being Handled. Explain Why a Particular Gas is Required. Conduct Training Prior to Job Assignment. Precautions to be Taken in Using Cylinders. Precautions to be Taken in Storing Cylinders. Precautions to be Taken in Moving Cylinders. Explain Proper Maintenance and Storage of Gases. Explain the Potential Hazards Associated with Gases. Explain The Nature, Extent and Effects of Gas Hazards. 14

10 RETRAINING REQUIREMENTS
REQUIRED WHEN THERE IS A: New Hazard or Gas. Program Related Injury. Change in Job Assignment. New Hazard Control Methods. Failure in the Safety Procedures. Reason to Doubt Employee Proficiency. 15

11 TRAINING IS IMPORTANT A GOOD PROGRAM WILL HELP:
Reduce injury and illness rates. Acceptance of high-turnover jobs. Workers feel better about their work. Reduce workers’ compensation costs. Elevate OSHA compliance to a higher level. 16

12 PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION
IMPLEMENTATION OF A COMPRESSED GAS SAFETY PROGRAM REQUIRES: DEDICATION PERSONAL INTEREST MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT NOTE: UNDERSTANDING AND SUPPORT FROM THE WORK FORCE IS ESSENTIAL, WITHOUT IT THE PROGRAM WILL FAIL! 17

13 PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION
Continued DEVELOPMENT SEQUENCE: DANGER COMPRESSED GAS STORAGE AREA Establish responsibility. Conduct employee training. Periodically review the program. Perform inspections and maintenance. Modify policies and rules as appropriate. Eliminate hazardous gases where possible. Establish a corporate policy and develop rules. Substitute nonhazardous gases where possible. Conduct a compressed gas safety survey of the facility. Provide protection where hazard elimination is not possible. 18

14 IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY
RECOGNITION EVALUATION IMPLEMENTATION CONTROL 19

15 IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY
Continued RECOGNITION ASSESSMENT OF GAS HAZARDS: Known jobs/areas having gas usage. Jobs/areas with new equipment or processes. New jobs having little or no statistical injury data. Jobs/areas having had recent operational changes. 20

16 IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY
Continued RECOGNITION EVALUATION IMPLEMENTATION CONTROL 21

17 IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY
Continued EVALUATION Facility audit data. Employee surveys. Accident investigations. Logs of employee complaints. Statistical evidence of known/potential hazards. Injury and illness data of known/potential hazards. 22

18 IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY
Continued RECOGNITION EVALUATION IMPLEMENTATION CONTROL 23

19 IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY
Continued IMPLEMENTATION Written program. Training program. Employee involvement. Supervisor involvement. Corrective action program. Job hazard analysis program. Safety in purchasing (new gases, substitutes etc.) 24

20 IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY
Continued RECOGNITION EVALUATION IMPLEMENTATION CONTROL 25

21 IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY
Continued CONTROL Periodic facility audits. Written program reviews. Employee feedback surveys. Job hazard analysis reviews. Recurrent training programs. Supervisor feedback surveys. Periodic statistical evaluations. Corrective action follow-up measures. 26

22 IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY
Continued CONTROL MEASURES CONSIDERATIONS: Capital improvement plan to eliminated hazards. Costs involved in purchasing substitutes gases. Length of time necessary for implementation. Level of urgency in implementation. Compatibility with existing processes or controls. Anticipated problems with employee use. 27

23 IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY
Continued PRIORITIZATION CONSIDERATIONS: Severity of injuries as a result of hazards. Consequences of an injury at the worksite. Likelihood that the operation will have an injury. The length of exposure to the hazard. Long-term effects of hazardous gas use. 28

24 THE SUPERVISOR’S ROLE CONSIDER THE FOLLOWING:
1. KNOW THE GASES YOU USE! 2. GET INVOLVED IN THE HAZARD ASSESSMENTS. 3. OBTAIN ASSISTANCE (IF NEEDED) FROM YOUR SUPPLIERS. 4. OBTAIN ASSISTANCE (IF NEEDED) FROM EXPERTS IN THE FIELD OF GAS SAFETY, CGA (703) 5. COMPLETE THE PAPERWORK (WORK ORDERS, POLICY CHANGES, ETC.) TO MAKE CORRECTIVE ACTIONS. 6. ATTEND THE SAME TRAINING AS YOUR WORKERS. 7. FOLLOW-UP ON THE ACTIONS YOU TOOK. 29

25 COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDS
PRINCIPAL HAZARDS: Extremely High Pressure. Toxicity. Reactivity. Instability. Flammability. Extreme Low Temperature. Asphyxiation. Radioactivity. 30

26 COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDS
Continued WHEN THINGS GO WRONG: Have Flown Over a Half Mile. Penetrated Brick Walls. Can Displace Oxygen in Extremely Large Areas. Can Oxygen-Enrich Extremely Large Areas. Can Spin and Ricochet Completely Out of Control. Can Immediately Freeze Exposed Skin. Can Explode With Tremendous Force. Can be Virtually Unstoppable. 31

27 COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDS
Continued THE TYPICAL COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDER: 175 Pounds. 2,000 to 2,640 psig (some to 6,000 psig). Wall Thickness of About 1/4 Inch. 57 Inches Tall. 9 Inches In Diameter. Easily Toppled. Easily Corroded. Devastatingly Hazardous. 32

28 KIDS DON’T TRY THIS AT HOME!
BASIC SAFETY RULES I’LL GET THE RUST OFF OF THIS THING ONE WAY OR ANOTHER! KIDS DON’T TRY THIS AT HOME! 33

29 BASIC SAFETY RULES THE BIG THREE:
Continued THE BIG THREE: Oxidizers: Must not be used in contact with oils, greases or other hydrocarbons. Flammables: Must not be exposed to flames, sparks or arcs including static electricity, hot surfaces or oxidizers. NonFlammables: Must not be allowed to displace air in confined work spaces so that there is insufficient oxygen for breathing. 34

30 BASIC SAFETY RULES FILLING OF CYLINDERS:
Continued FILLING OF CYLINDERS: Cylinders may not be filled except by the supplier of the cylinder or with the supplier’s consent. Where filling is authorized it must be accomplished in strict accordance with DOT, OSHA and CGA regulations. 35

31 BASIC SAFETY RULES CONTENT IDENTIFICATION:
Continued CONTENT IDENTIFICATION: Never assume you know what it is! Assuming (with gases) gets you dead! Labels must be legible at all times. Labels may not be altered or removed. Labels may not be bypassed, ignored, or otherwise defeated. Labels must be understood by all. Nonlegible/missing labels must be reported. 36

32 BASIC SAFETY RULES CONTENT IDENTIFICATION:
Continued CONTENT IDENTIFICATION: Continued Labels and their means of attachment must withstand their normal operating environment. Labels may evoke a false sense of security, and their meaning needs to be understood. Labels must be securely attached to cylinders so that they cannot be inadvertently or accidentally detached during use. Each container must bear the proper label for the gas contained. 37

33 BASIC SAFETY RULES PAINTING CONTAINERS: Containers may not be painted.
Continued PAINTING CONTAINERS: Containers may not be painted. Painting may cover cylinder defects. Containers showing signs of corrosion must be removed from service and returned to the supplier. Never rely solely on the cylinder color for identification. 38

34 BASIC SAFETY RULES LEAKING AND DEFECTIVE CYLINDERS:
Continued LEAKING AND DEFECTIVE CYLINDERS: Never underestimate the hazard! Notify co-workers of the hazard. Consider evacuation of the area. Evacuate to open air, up-wind or side-wind. Report the contents, location, situation. Begin role call to account for co-workers. Do not return to work until all-clear is given. 39

35 BASIC SAFETY RULES CYLINDER USAGE REQUIREMENTS:
Continued CYLINDER USAGE REQUIREMENTS: Verify contents before transporting or using. Keep cylinder caps on until ready to connect. Keep valve caps on until ready to use. Never use as a door stop. Never underestimate the hazard. 40

36 BASIC SAFETY RULES MOVEMENT OF COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDERS:
Continued MOVEMENT OF COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDERS: Never handle roughly. Never use magnetic lifting devices. Never lift by valves or cylinder caps. Never roll, drag, or slide the cylinder. Always use a hand-truck, fork truck etc. Cradles, ropes, chains, or slings are prohibited from use unless lugs or lifting attachments are provided by the manufacturer. 41

37 BASIC SAFETY RULES STORAGE REQUIREMENTS (GENERAL):
Continued STORAGE REQUIREMENTS (GENERAL): “No Smoking” signs must be posted. The name of the gas must be posted. Specific hazards must be posted. Containers must be stored up right. Gases must be stored with like gases. Do not intermingle full and empty containers. The oldest material must be used first. Stored only on stable surfaces. Some gases must always be shaded from sun. 42

38 BASIC SAFETY RULES STORAGE ROOMS (GENERAL): Must be dry.
Continued STORAGE ROOMS (GENERAL): Must be dry. Must not exceed 125 F. Must be well ventilated. Should be protected from tampering. Local fire inspectors should evaluate. NFPA guidelines should be reviewed. Subsurface storage should be avoided. Should be of fire-resistive construction. 43

39 BASIC SAFETY RULES STORAGE ROOMS (GENERAL): Cylinders
Continued STORAGE ROOMS (GENERAL): Cylinders - Must not impede emergency egress. - Cannot be located near exits. - Cannot be located near stairs. Must be secured to prevent toppling. 44

40 BASIC SAFETY RULES OUTDOOR STORAGE (GENERAL):
Continued OUTDOOR STORAGE (GENERAL): Bottoms must be protected from corrosion. Must be secured to prevent toppling. Must be shaded in extreme temperatures. Some gases must always be shaded from sun. Should be of fire-resistive construction. Should be protected from tampering. Local fire inspectors should evaluate. NFPA guidelines should be reviewed. 45

41 BASIC SAFETY RULES 4 1 3 NAME PRECAUTIONS RESTRAINED ABOVE MIDPOINT
Continued NAME PRECAUTIONS RESTRAINED ABOVE MIDPOINT EMERGENCY & USE PROCEDURES AWAY FROM COMBUSTIBLES DANGER NO SMOKING NO FUMAR 4 3 1 ACETYLENE GAS INSPECTION CHECKLIST 46

42 BASIC SAFETY RULES GENERAL INSPECTION CRITERIA:
Continued GENERAL INSPECTION CRITERIA: INSPECT FOR: POSSIBLE RESULT: Dents Weakening of cylinder wall Crevice Corrosion Weakening of cylinder wall Bulges Weakening of cylinder wall ARC/ Torch Burns Weakening of cylinder wall Cuts, Gouges or Digs Decrease in wall thickness Corrosion Decrease in wall thickness Pitting Decrease in wall thickness Neck Defects Leak or cylinder explosion Valve Ease-Of-Movement Corrosion leading to leak Valve Thread Serviceability Leak during operation 47

43 BASIC SAFETY RULES PRE-OPERATION SAFETY RULES:
Continued PRE-OPERATION SAFETY RULES: If you’re not trained don’t touch it! Read the Material Safety Data Sheet before use. Ensure an “In Use” label is present. Ensure all labels/warnings are readable. Place upright on stable dry surface. Ensure cylinder is restrained above midpoint. Keep heat, flame, & electrical sources from gas. Use in accordance with established procedures. 48

44 BASIC SAFETY RULES POST-OPERATION SAFETY RULES:
Continued POST-OPERATION SAFETY RULES: If you’re not trained don’t touch it! Read the Material Safety Data Sheet. Ensure an “Empty” label is present. Close valve completely and cap cylinder. Remove from operation (established procedures). Transport cylinder using a handtruck. Place in “Empty Container” storage area. Ensure “Empty” label is readable. 49

45 STORAGE VARIES GREATLY,
STORAGE RULES STORAGE VARIES GREATLY, HERE ARE A FEW EXAMPLES OF COMMON STORAGE REQUIREMENTS. ASK YOUR LOCAL FIRE INSPECTOR TO HELP YOU WITH YOUR SPECIFIC TYPES OF GASES. 50

46 STORAGE RULES 4 1 3 USE OLDEST STOCK FIRST! ACETYLENE Continued FULL
DANGER COMPRESSED GAS STORAGE AREA FULL CYLINDERS NO SMOKING! 4 3 1 STORAGE CHECKLIST 51

47 STORAGE RULES FULL CYLINDER STORAGE RULES:
Continued FULL CYLINDER STORAGE RULES: If you’re not trained don’t touch it! Read the Material Safety Data Sheet. Do not smoke. Mark cylinder with date of storage. Rotate oldest product to front. Rotate oldest product to front and use first. Inspect cylinder for damage before storage. Store with like kind of gas. 52

48 STORAGE RULES FULL CYLINDER STORAGE RULES:
Continued FULL CYLINDER STORAGE RULES: Continued Ensure all labels are readable. Ensure valve assembly is tightly capped. Ensure cylinder is restrained above midpoint. Store upright on stable dry surface. Keep electrical devices away from gas. Keep combustible materials away from gas. Keep heat, flame and ignition sources from gas. Never underestimate the hazard. 53

49 STORAGE RULES EMPTY CYLINDER STORAGE RULES:
Continued EMPTY CYLINDER STORAGE RULES: If you’re not trained don’t touch it! Read the Material Safety Data Sheet. Do not smoke. Ensure the cylinder is empty. Ensure valve assembly is closed tightly. Ensure valve assembly is capped tightly. Inspect cylinder for damage before storage. Store with like kind of gas cylinders. 54

50 STORAGE RULES EMPTY CYLINDER STORAGE RULES:
Continued EMPTY CYLINDER STORAGE RULES: Continued Ensure all labels are readable. Ensure cylinder is restrained above midpoint. Store upright on a stable dry surface. Keep electrical devices away from gas. Keep combustible materials away from gas. Keep heat and flame away from gas. Never underestimate the hazard. 55

51 SPECIFIC TYPES OF GASES
THERE ARE HUNDREDS OF GASES USED IN INDUSTRY. HERE ARE A FEW EXAMPLES OF COMMONLY USED GASES. ASK YOUR SUPPLIER TO HELP YOU WITH YOUR SPECIFIC TYPES OF GASES. 56

52 SPECIFIC TYPES OF GASES
Continued OXYGEN (INCLUDING OXIDIZING GASES): Oxygen and oxidizers can be deadly. Cleanliness is absolutely essential!!! Explosion results upon contact with hydrocarbons. Keep oil, grease, and other hydrocarbons away! Ensure process or system is compatible with oxygen. Assess compatibility of equipment and materials. Separate from combustible materials. Oxygen can “fuel enrich” permeable materials. Oxygen enriched materials burn tremendously. 57

53 SPECIFIC TYPES OF GASES
Continued THE pH of ACIDS AND BASES pH IS THE NUMERICAL MEASURE OF ITS RELATIVE ACIDITY OR ALKALINITY. THE RANGE IS FROM WITH A NEUTRAL LEVEL EXPRESSED AS A pH OF 7.0. pH ABOVE MORE ALKALINE OR BASIC. pH BELOW MORE ACIDIC. 58

54 SPECIFIC TYPES OF GASES
Continued CHECK FOR COMPATIBILITY! HIGH pH BASE ACID LOW pH 59

55 SPECIFIC TYPES OF GASES
Continued ACID & ALKALINE GASES: Avoid contact with all bodily routes of entry. Wear goggles and suitable skin protection. Consider effects on the respiratory tract. Long sleeves and trousers are mandatory. Open toed shoes or sneakers are prohibited. Gas masks/SCBA must be immediately available. SCBA must be used when the concentration could exceed the rating of the gas mask canister or if the gas could displace oxygen to below 19 percent. 60

56 SPECIFIC TYPES OF GASES
Continued ACID & ALKALINE GASES: Continued Emergency showers/eyewashes must be available. Quantities on-site must be limited. Ventilation must be adequate in the work area. Common corrosive and toxic gases include: - Boron Trichloride Bromine Trifluoride - Chlorine Trifluoride - Hydrogen Fluoride - Iodine Pentafluoride - Silicon Tetrafluoride - Sulfur Tetrafluoride - Tungsten Hexafluoride 61

57 SPECIFIC TYPES OF GASES
Continued BHOPAL, INDIA: Over 2000 people died. Methyl isocyanate released. Occurred in December 1984. SARA Title III initially proposed as a result. The Union Carbide Facility was not unique. The accident could have occurred anywhere. Most were inhabitants in the area of the plant. 62

58 SPECIFIC TYPES OF GASES
Continued HIGHLY TOXIC GASES: Remember Bhopal India! Training is critical. The specific hazards must be understood. Threshold Limit Values must be determined. Storage is critical and must be assessed. Ventilation is critical and must be assessed. Gas discharges must be scrubbed. Discharges must be neutralized. On-site quantities must be limited. 63

59 SPECIFIC TYPES OF GASES
Continued HIGHLY TOXIC GASES: Continued Medical services should be pre-planned. Suppliers/manufacturers should be consulted. Emergency responders should consulted. Common highly toxic gases include: - Arsine Boron Trichloride - Bromine Trifluoride - Bromine Pentafluoride - Chlorine Fluorine - Germane Hydrogen Cyanide - Hydrogen Selenide - Hydrogen Sulfide - Nitric Oxide Phosgene 64

60 SPECIFIC TYPES OF GASES
Continued CRYOGENIC LIQUEFIED GASES: In liquid form at relatively low pressures. Extremely low temperatures. Usually below - 238F (- 150C). Handled in heavily insulated containers. Insulated containers minimize evaporation. Proper operation of venting systems is essential. High expansion rate on vaporization. Can cause extreme bodily damage on contact. Full body protection must be utilized. 65

61 SPECIFIC TYPES OF GASES
Continued CRYOGENIC LIQUEFIED GASES: Continued Oxygen Rate of Expansion 3 875 ft 3 1ft +65F - 238F 66

62 SPECIFIC TYPES OF GASES
Continued CRYOGENIC LIQUEFIED GASES: Continued Use only hardware designed for cryogenics. Pain is not immediate. Tissue solidifies over time. Blood circulation is arrested. Serious skin burns may result. Blood clots are highly probable. Skin highly vulnerable to infection. Flush with tepid water. LOX 67

63 SPECIFIC TYPES OF GASES
Continued INERT GASES: Can displace oxygen leading to asphyxiation. SCBA or airline systems must be used. Oxygen content below 19 percent is dangerous. Common highly inert gases include: - Argon Carbon Dioxide - Helium Neon - Nitrogen Xenon 68

64 SPECIFIC TYPES OF GASES
Continued GENERAL SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS Don’t be afraid to ask people to wait! Limit conversation while using gases. Know that you could be seriously injured. Know that no one ever expected to get injured. Know that none of us is immune to injury. Know the safe procedures before starting work. Know the location of first aid kits. Avoid horseplay - don’t tolerate it from others. Think about going home in the same shape. Know your gas! 69

65 INSPECTION AND CARE OF GASES
INSPECTION CONSIDERATIONS: Develop a detailed inspection policy. Document each inspection. Inspect all gases before issue or use. Tag as unusable, damaged cylinders. Inspect cylinders before each use (without exception). Separate damaged cylinders from serviceable cylinders. Consider the effects on gases stored for long periods. Remove damaged cylinders from service immediately. 70


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