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Presentation on theme: "DIRECT READING SEMINAR Baton Rouge, LA"— Presentation transcript:

Marketing Team, August 2012

2 Nickel Carbonyl Detection
Contents Nickel Carbonyl Detection Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene Sensor Study Cat Ex versus Infrared Detection for combustible gases X-zone Technology reference Confined Space Booklet 13

3 Nickel Carbonyl Detection

4 Chemical Formula: Ni(CO)4
NICKEL CARBONYL Chemical Formula: Ni(CO)4 Synonyms & Trade Names: Nickel tetracarbonyl, Tetracarbonyl nickel Exposure Limits: NIOSH REL: Ca TWA ppm OSHA PEL: TWA ppm ACGIH: TWA 0.05 ppm Develops with CO and heat exposure on the nickel catalyst during a change out. Direct Reading Seminar | Marketing |

5 Tube type: Color comparison ampoule tube Detection Range: 0.1 – 1 ppm
NICKEL CARBONYL TUBE Dräger-Tube®: CH19501 Tube type: Color comparison ampoule tube Detection Range: 0.1 – 1 ppm Pump Strokes: n=20 Standard Deviation: ± 50% Measuring time: ~5 minutes No longer recommended to extend range with additional pump strokes H2S or SO2 could cause bleaching effect, which would turn indication layer white 10 ppm H2S 30 mm white 10 ppm SO2 15 mm white Direct Reading Seminar | Marketing |

6 Tube type: Direct Reading Tube Detection Range: 2 to 60 ppm
CARBON MONOXIDE TUBE Dräger-Tube®: Tube type: Direct Reading Tube Detection Range: 2 to 60 ppm Pump Strokes: n=10 Standard Deviation: ± 10 to 15% Measuring time: ~4 minutes No issue with use in N2 purged atmospheres Direct reading CO monitors can be used Nickel Carbonyl can respond on electrochemical sensors Direct Reading Seminar | Marketing |

7 Sensor Study

8 5 manufacturers participated in the study
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene H2S and SO2 Sensor Evaluation H2S and SO2 sensors evaluated for response based on new ACGIH exposure levels 5 manufacturers participated in the study “Results demonstrate that these monitors cannot reliably alarm and measure H2S or SO2 concentration at the new TLV’s with an acceptable degree of accuracy.” DrägerSensors® were not evaluated Direct Reading Seminar | Marketing |

9 Exposure Limits: NIOSH REL: C 10 ppm [10 min max]
HYDROGEN SULFIDE Chemical Formula: H2S Synonyms & Trade Names: Hydrosulfuric acid, Sewer gas, Sulfuretted hydrogen Exposure Limits: NIOSH REL: C 10 ppm [10 min max] OSHA PEL: C 20 ppm; 50 ppm [10 min max peak] ACGIH: TWA 1 ppm, STEL 5 ppm Direct Reading Seminar | Marketing |

10 DrägerSensor XXS H2S LC Applications:
Part No: Instrument: X-am 3400 / 2000 X-am 5000 / 5600 Pac 7000 Pac 3500 / 5500 Measuring Range: 0 … 100 ppm Lower Detection limit: 0.4 ppm Resolution: ppm Response Time T90: 15 s Applications: Landfill measurement, petro chemistry, fertilizer production, sewage plants, mining & tunneling, shipping, organic chemistry, steel industry, pulp & paper, oil & gas, biogas, monitoring hazardous materials Outstanding Features: fast response time and excellent linearity selective measurement of H2S at or below 1 ppm long life time Direct Reading Seminar | Marketing |

11 Exposure Limits: NIOSH REL: TWA 2 ppm; STEL 5 ppm OSHA PEL: TWA 5 ppm
SULFUR DIOXIDE Chemical Formula: SO2 Synonyms & Trade Names: Sulfurous acid anhydride, Sulfurous oxide, Sulfur oxide Exposure Limits: NIOSH REL: TWA 2 ppm; STEL 5 ppm OSHA PEL: TWA 5 ppm ACGIH: STEL 0.25 ppm Direct Reading Seminar | Marketing |

12 DrägerSensor XXS SO2 Applications:
Part No: Instrument: X-am 5000 / 5600 Pac 7000 Measuring Range: 0 … 100 ppm Detection limit: 0.1 ppm Resolution: ppm Response Time T90: 15 s Applications: Food & beverage industry, pest control, mining, oil & gas, petro chemistry, pulp & paper, shipping, steel industry Outstanding Features: highly selective if selective filter is used, cross sensitivity to H2S will be eliminated selective filter has a life time of 1,000 ppm x hours  at H2S of 1 ppm 1,000 h sensor usage fast response time Direct Reading Seminar | Marketing |

13 Cat Ex vs IR

14 DrägerSensor Infrared IR Ex
Part No: Instrument: X-am 5600 Measuring Range: %LEL / % by vol. CH4 Detection limit: 1 %LEL / 0.2 % by vol. Resolution: 1% LEL / 0.1 Vol.-% for IR Ex Response Time T90: 20 s Applications: Telecommunications, shipping, sewage, gas supply companies, refineries, chemical industry, mining, landfills, biogas plants, tunneling. Outstanding Features: measuring of hydrocarbons in inert atmospheres high level of long-term stability highly resistant to poisoning Direct Reading Seminar | Marketing |

15 Dräger Infrared vs. heat of reaction technology
Catalytic bead sensor Infrared sensor Used in Dräger Measuring principle By means of infrared light in a specific wave length the C-H bond of Hydrocarbon molecules will oscillate, whereas the infrared light will lose energy (light will be absorbed by the gas). In principle, the gas detectors will measure how much the light sent from the infrared lamp will be absorbed during the multiple passing through the gas. Colour filter in front of each detector will let pass only a small frequency range of light. The measuring detector has been tuned to the specific absorption of the C-H stimulation. The reference detector will measure the general light intensity. By comparison of both measurements a reliable result will be shown, which is largely independent to aging processes. Heat of reaction sensors are based on the oxidation of flammable gases on the surface of electrical heated catalytic elements, the pellistor. Due to the emerging heat of combustion the electrical resistance of the pellistor changes. The electrical homogenous compensator (the inactive spiral coil) is covered with a chemical inert layer and is used as a reference resistance to the pellistor. The resulting resistance change in the active part will be altered into a output signal. Direct Reading Seminar | Marketing |

16 Dräger Infrared vs. CatEx – metrological differences
Catalytic bead sensor Infrared sensor Inert Measurement: O2 in gas sample required?  for the operation at least 10% O2 is required.  also applicable in inert atmospheres Typical measuring ranges for flammable gases % LEL flammable gases Vol.-% for Methane % LEL flammable Hydrocarbons Vol.-% for Methane, Propane and Ethylene Measureable flammable gases All flammable gases; exception: large molecules No influence by non flammable gases All flammable Hydrocarbons with C-H bonds No measurement of Hydrogen (H2);  but a combination of the IR Ex sensor with the electrochemical H2 sensor to an added H2 Ex signal is possible. Direct Reading Seminar | Marketing |

17 Dräger Relative sensitivity of a Methane calibrated instrument
+ H2 (EC) Relative Sensitivity of a Methane calibrated instrument As an example for – the row of Alcanes: Methane (C1), Propane (C3), Nonane (C9) As an example for – ring-shaped Hydrocarbons: Toluene As an example for – inorganic explosive compounds: Hydrogen Direct Reading Seminar | Marketing |

18 Dräger Infrared vs. heat of reaction technology
Catalytic bead sensor Infrared sensor “Fail Safe“ Some faults like contaminations, can only be discovered by a bump test Possible sensor defects like corrosions on the surface, defective lamps or detectors can be shown by the instrument as an error Limitations and erratic influences (e.g. contamination) Silicones; halogenated Hydrocarbons; lead-containing components as Tetraethyl lead; Organic Phosphorous compounds; Sulphur compounds high concentrations (H2S)- the CatEx 125 used in the Dräger X-am 5000 is equipped with an H2S pre filter to reduce the influences No influences by sensor poisoning Minimized influences due to water vapor concentration In the Dräger X-am 5600 this influences will be minimized by heating the measuring cell (avoid condensation). Direct Reading Seminar | Marketing |

19 Dräger Infrared vs. heat of reaction technology
Catalytic bead sensor Infrared sensor Stability/Drift good, in case of no catalyst poison; Recommended calibration interval*: 3 to 6 months Very good due to the physical basis; Recommended calibration interval*: 6 to 12 months Life time Expected: 3+ years; depending on poisoning or mechanical defects Warranty: 2 years Expected: 8+ years; depending on corrosions and mechanical defects Warranty: 5 years * Providing recommended bump/function tests are performed Direct Reading Seminar | Marketing |

20 Dräger Recommended application
Cat bead sensor Infrared sensor Ex hazard due to gases as Methane - Gas Pipelines, compressor stations - Waste water plants and channels - Biogas und clearing sludge - Landfill - Energy supply (Gas and Electric) - Building , Telekom and electric work because of leaks of adjoining gas pipelines or swamp gas - Mining Ex hazard due to gases as Ethane, Propane, Pentane, Hexane - Natural gas pipelines and natural gas processing - Refineries and petrochemical treatment - Processing in the chemical industry - LPG storage and transportation - Extraction of vegetable oil Ex hazard due to vapors as Benzine, Diesel - Refineries and petrochemical treatment - Processing in the chemical industry (paint, polymer processing) - Crude oil transportation and storage Ex hazard due to inorganic gases – Hydrogen - Hydrocracker in Refineries - Energy producer - Production of margarine The infrared sensor does not measure any Hydrogen! The Dräger X-am 5600 in combination with an electrochemical Hydrogen sensor can be used unknown Ex hazard - Fire Services and Civil Protection Direct Reading Seminar | Marketing |

21 Dräger X-zone 5000 Technology Update
August 2012, Russell Warn

22 Portable Gas Detection Portfolio Application overview
Dräger Sensoren A small sensor - a giant step into the future: The new DrägerSensor XXS is remarkably compact, and boasts an even higher performance than the competition. Compact and powerful: The durable Dräger infrared sensors work very accurately and precisely, even in oxygen-free atmospheres. Multiple gases at the same time: The DrägerSensor Cat Ex measures combustible gases and vapors in the air.

23 Dräger X-zone 5000 Patented: Device Integrated in Amplifier
The product State-of-the-art area monitoring – the Dräger X-zone in combination with the Dräger X-am 5000 or X-am 5600 gas detection instruments can be used for the measurement of one to six gases. The transportable, sturdy and waterproof unit extends mobile gas detection technology to a unique system with many flexible applications

24 Area Monitoring - the concept Advantages of an area monitoring safety concept
Big savings by implementing an area monitoring safety concept! Example 1: Use of one area monitor instead of multiple personal gas monitors; Savings due to eased logistics and training efforts for contractors within industrial shutdowns => reduced costs Example 2: An area monitor is placed where the gas hazard is expected => more safety It can be used additionally to the personal air monitors handed out to all workers; Rerelease procedures e.g. „after lunch breaks“ can be eased. => less costs

25 Dräger X-zone 5000 Really noisy innovative area monitoring – 360°
Good sound! 108 dB at 1 m or 120 dB at 30 cm Sweeping alarm sound from 1500 to 2300 Hz, that cannot be missed even with different industrial background noises 360° visible green LED illuminated ring indicates: “no potential gas hazard” 360° visible red or red/green LED illuminated ring indicates: “gas hazard” in combination with a 360° audible evacuations alarm

26 Dräger X-zone 5000 Innovative area monitoring – 360°
360° gas access The 360° gas access on the top of the Dräger X-zone acts as a wind shield => highest safety

27 Dräger X-zone 5000 wireless fence line monitoring
Up to 25 Dräger X-zone 5000 units automatically interconnect to form a wireless fenceline. This interconnection of the transportable measuring heads enables quick monitoring of large areas, e.g. pipelines or industrial tanks within the scope of industrial shutdowns. If a unit indicates a gas alarm (mother alarm – red) the device transmits the alarms to all other units that are part of the fenceline to a daughter alarm – green/red thus ensuring a simple evacuation alarm. Alternatively a wired or a combination of a wired/wireless fenceline can also be formed. Wireless Alarm transfer from one instrument to the next => quick setup of a wireless fenceline reduces efforts for the construction site “safety preparation”

28 Gas Dispersion Where to place an area monitor?
Place an area monitor, where the gas hazard is expected, but where do you expect it? Hydrogen Methane Ammonia Acetylene Nitrogen Gas lighter than air: light gas or hot gases Depending on the gas type to be detected use socket Gas heavier than air: dense gas or cold Gases All chemicals have a different weight due to their composition. Gases and vapors can be sorted by their specific weight or density. The density of gases form two groups. One group lighter than air called buoyant gases and one group heavier than air call dense gas. If a gas is called buoyant and the dispersion is not disturbed, it will rise into the air. If a gas belongs to the group of dense gases it will move on the ground. As always in life there are exception to be considered behaving the opposite way. If temperature or pressure is involved substances might show different behavior at least for a period of time until they equilibrate with the environmental conditions. If liquefied substances leak they might first form a puddle which evaporated over time. Leaking Gas jets can point in all direction and show no specific behavior. Oxygen Carbon dioxide Propane Chlorine Benzene Phosgene

29 Dräger X-zone 5000 wireless fence line monitoring
Typical recommendation Comparable to fixed gas detectors – X-zones shall be placed, depending on expected gases, in a distance of <25 m to ensure a safe area monitoring system Technical capability X-zones would interconnect wireless at a distance of up to 100 m With the used frequency of 868 MHz (Europe) or 915 MHz (Australia, USA, Canada) a good connection also “around the corner” or with obstructions in-between the X-zones can be ensured even though the distance might be reduced

30 Dräger X-zone 5000 wireless fence line monitoring
Easy Setup within a MESH Network X-zones are automatically interconnected – the connection LED shows green, if a neighbour instrument is found; it shows red with no neighbour ALL DEVICES SPEAK TO ALL OTHER X-ZONES IN MINIMUM ONE OTHER NEIGHBOUR NEEDS TO BE FOUND TO TAKE PART IN THE COMMUNICATION OF THE WHOLE GROUP => HIGHEST SAFETY TO KEEP THE CONNECTION WITHIN THE FENCELINE left instrument switched on connection LED red right instrument turned on connection LED turned green

31 Dräger X-zone 5000 Pumped Area Monitoring
An integrated pump – available as an option – provides continuous monitoring of areas in pumped operation. Thus the system allows for continuous monitoring of difficult to access areas or confined spaces from a distance of up to 45 m. By using the diffusion cap the X-zone 5000 with pump is also useable in the diffusion mode.

32 Dräger X-zone 5000 Zone 0 In contrast to personal gas detection
instruments area monitors remain in the Ex area also in the event of a gas alarm. Therefore it is more important that they are approved for Ex zone 0 – continuous operation in explosive atmospheres is ensured. ATEX: I M1 Ex ia I Ma (Mining) II 1G Ex ia IIC T3 Ga (Industry – Zone 0) IECEx: II 2G Ex d ia T4 Gb CUS: Class I, Zone 0, AEx ia IIC T3 Ga Class I, Zone 1, AEx ia d IIC T4 Gb

33 Alternatively use the attractive X-am 5000/5600 maintenance tools:
Dräger X-zone 5000 Alternatively use the attractive X-am 5000/5600 maintenance tools: However, the gas detection instruments can also be quickly removed from the Dräger X-zone 5000 to allow usage of the accessories of the small personal gas detectors, such as the Dräger Bumptest Station or the Dräger E-Cal station. No daily Bumptest required! A bumptest is only necessary when placing the instrument on the site. With 5 days runtime this may be just one time a week! Dräger Bumptest Station, for bumptests and calibrations of the gas detection devices Dräger X-am 5x00 Dräger E-Cal Station, for bumptests, calibrations, configurations, fleet management of the gas detection devices

34 THANK YOU!! X-am | Marketing |

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