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Ideal Gas Law PV=nRT Remember… Boyles Law Charles Law: Combined Gas Law: (Units MUST Match Temp in Kelvin!!!)

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Presentation on theme: "Ideal Gas Law PV=nRT Remember… Boyles Law Charles Law: Combined Gas Law: (Units MUST Match Temp in Kelvin!!!)"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Ideal Gas Law PV=nRT

3 Remember… Boyles Law Charles Law: Combined Gas Law: (Units MUST Match Temp in Kelvin!!!)

4 A gas with a volume of 350 ml is collected at 15 o C and 120 kPa. If the temperature changes to 30 o C, what pressure would be required to put this gas in a 300 ml container?

5 A balloon has a volume of 500 ml at a temperature of 22 o C and a pressure of 755 mmHg. If the balloon is cooled to 0 o C and a pressure of 145 mmHg, what is its new volume?

6 Avogadros Principle Under similar conditions (same Temp and Pressure) equal volumes of gases contain equal numbers of particles. 10 L of H 2 (g) and 10 L of O 2 (g) Both at Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP) contain… The same number of particles!

7 Molar Volume The volume of 1 mole of gas particles at STP is 22.4 L

8 Ideal Gas Law Animation: Ideal Gas Law Animation:

9 Try this: 1 mole of gas occupies 22.4 L at STP = __________ ml (22400) = ___________ moles of gas (1 mole) = ___________ particles (6.02 x )

10 How many particles in 11.2 dm 3 of gas at STP? 0.5 moles = 3.01 x particles 0.5 moles = 3.01 x particles 22,400 cm 3 of NH 3 gas at STP weighs? = 22.4 L = 1 mole = 17 grams (add up MW) = 22.4 L = 1 mole = 17 grams (add up MW) 44.8 L of NH 3 at STP weighs? = 2 moles = 34 grams = 2 moles = 34 grams _____ grams = 1 mole of nitrogen gas = _____ L at STP?

11 How many N 2 molecules are in 22.4 dm 3 at STP? = 1 mole = 6.02 x = 1 mole = 6.02 x What volume will 1.2 x H 2 molecules occupy at STP? = 2 moles = 44.8 L at STP = 2 moles = 44.8 L at STP

12 Ideal Gas Equation Use when NOT at STP!!! PV= nRT P = Pressure (in kPa) V = Volume (in Liters or dm 3 ) n = number of moles T = Temperature (in Kelvin) R = 8.31 L kPa mole K

13 Development of R in

14 1. What volume will 2 moles of NO 2 occupy at 300 Kelvin and 90 kPa?

15 What will be the temp of 2 grams of H 2 if 5000 cm 3 is at 5 atm?

16 Finding Molecular Weight of a Gas Remember: MW = grams / moles Converting grams to moles –D–D–D–Divide grams by the molecular weight

17 1) 5.0 L of a gas weighs g at 20 o C & 92 kPa. What is the mole weight of the gas? PV=nRT 92kPa 5.0 L= n K n = 0.19 mol

18 2)If the mole weight of a gas is 26 g/mol and g of the gas is 30 L at 21 o C, what is the pressure of the gas? PV= nRT P x 30 L=0.69 mol x 8.31 x 294 K P = 56.2kPa

19 Stoichiometry Solving Steps. –Balance the Equation –Change grams to moles –Use mole ratio to solve –Change moles to volumes

20 Use mole ratio (coefficients) Use 22.4 STP Or PV = nRT Use MW on P.T. Use MW on P.T. Use 22.4 STP Or PV = nRT

21 Mg (c) + HCl (ag) MgCl 2 + H 2 (g) If 2.43 g Mg react what volume of H 2 is produced? (at STP) Mg (c) + HCl (ag) MgCl 2 + H 2 (g) Mg (c) + HCl (ag) MgCl 2 + H 2 (g) 2.43 g Mg 0.1 mole 1:1 0.1 moles L H 2 ? L

22 Mg (c) +2 HCl (ag) MgCl 2 + H 2 (g) If 2.43 g Mg react what volume of H 2 is produced at 40 o C and 85 kPa? Mg (c) + HCl (ag) MgCl 2 + H 2 (g) Mg (c) + HCl (ag) MgCl 2 + H 2 (g) 2.43 g Mg 0.1 mole 1:1 0.1 moles L H 2 ? L

23 If 250 ml of H 2 is produced at 20 o C & 100 kPa, what mass of Mg reacted? Mg (c) + HCl (ag) MgCl 2 + H 2 (g) Mg (c) + HCl (ag) MgCl 2 + H 2 (g) 2 ? g 250 ml 0.01 moles 0.01 mole 1: g Mg

24 Volume to Volume THE MOLE RATIO IS THE SAME AS THE VOLUME RATIO. Liters B Use mole ratio (coefficients) Liters A

25 Burning of methane: What vol. of oxygen is needed to completely burn 1 L of methane? CH 4 + O 2 CO 2 (g) + H 2 O (l) CH 4 + O 2 CO 2 (g) + H 2 O (l) 2.0 L 1:2 1.0 L 22

26 Burning of methane: To produce 11.2 L of CO 2 requires how many moles of O 2 at STP? CH 4 + O 2 CO 2 (g) + H 2 O (l) CH 4 + O 2 CO 2 (g) + H 2 O (l) 22.4 L 2: L 1 mole = 22


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