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Oil Curtis P. Henderson.

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Presentation on theme: "Oil Curtis P. Henderson."— Presentation transcript:

1 Oil Curtis P. Henderson

2 What is Petroleum? Petroleum: a natural yellow-to-black flammable liquid hydrocarbon found beneath the earth’s surface Hydrocarbon: an organic compound made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms

3 Petroleum Products One Barrel = 42 gallons
A Barrel of Crude Oil Provides: Gasoline gallons One Barrel = 42 gallons Fuel Oil gallons Jet Fuel gallons Asphalt gallons Kerosene gallons Lubricants gallons Petrochemicals, other products gallons American Petroleum Institute, 1999

4 Petroleum System Processes
Accumulation Source Rock

5 Casing Drill Pipe Bit Drilling Rig

6 Drilling Rock Bit Cuttings Core (Diamond) Bit Core

7 Petroleum System Elements
(Impermeable) (Porous/Permeable) Potential Migration Route

8 Hydrocarbon Trap Types
Anticline Fault Salt Dome Pinchout Unconformity American Petroleum Institute, 1986

9 Traps Anticlinal - Rock layers folded into a dome
Stratigraphic - Rock layers changing from a good reservoir to non-reservoir due to change in rock type (pinch-out), reservoir quality (diagenesis), or removal (erosional unconformity) Fault - Offset of rocks such that oil and gas accumulates in reservoir rock

10 Petroleum System Elements
Source Rock - A rock with abundant hydrocarbon-prone organic matter Reservoir Rock - A rock in which oil and gas accumulates: - Porosity - space between rock grains in which oil accumulates Permeability - passage-ways between pores through which oil and gas moves Seal Rock - A rock through which oil and gas cannot move effectively (such as mudstone and claystone) Migration Route - Avenues in rock through which oil and gas moves from source rock to trap Trap - The structural and stratigraphic configuration that focuses oil and gas into an accumulation

11 Reservoir Sandstone Good Porosity = Lots of Space for Petroleum Pores

12 = Less Space for Petroleum
Reservoir Sandstone Pore-Filling Cement Reduces Quality Cement (pink) = Less Space for Petroleum

13 Directional Drilling Avoids Surface Hazards
Gas Oil Water American Petroleum Institute, 1986

14 Extended Reach Drilling
Technology Advances Result in More Cost-Effective Wells Reduce friction Use geology to find stable path of least resistance Tri-cone Drill Bit Downhole Motor and Steering Assembly Logging Tool Drag Drag Torque Torque Drill Mud reduces torque and drag Drill Mud reduces torque and drag

15 Pipeline to Flow Process and Storage
Christmas Tree Pipeline to Flow Process and Storage Surface Casing Intermediate Casing Production Casing Completion Fluid Cement Packer Tubing Well Fluids Oil or Gas Zone Perforations Completed Oil Well Water Drive - Hydrostatic pressure pushes oil and gas to surface Gas-Cap Drive - Expansion of gas under pressure pushes oil to surface Dissolved-Gas Drive - Gas disseminated in oil; usually requires pumping American Petroleum Institute, 1986

16 Secondary Recovery Water Gas
Producing Wells Secondary Recovery Injection Wells Of 60% Remaining in Reservoir Water Gas Steam Chemical Fire Pumped into the reservoir to force additional petroleum out of the pores in the reservoir rock

17 after World Book Encyclopedia
JMA after World Book Encyclopedia

18 after World Book Encyclopedia

19 USA Average Wellhead Oil Price
Oil Price (1996 Dollars/Barrel) 60 1990 Gulf War 1980 Iran/Iraq War 50 1978 Iranian Revolution 40 1973 Arab Oil Embargo $/Barrel 1967 Arab-Israeli War 30 1956 Suez Crisis 20 10 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 Year U.S. Department of Energy, 1996

20 Anticlinal Theory Petroleum Accumulates in Structural Closure Gas Oil

21 Petroleum System, Play Definition, and Risk
Trap Play Maps Source Extent Timing Sheets Seal Extent Time Present Generation and Migration Components HC Charge Reservoir Extent Preservation Critical Reconstruction Present Past Jeff Brown, Mobil, 1999

22 Seismic Imaging of Anticline
Vibrator Truck (Energy Source) Recording Truck Geophone (Receivers) Returning Sound Waves American Petroleum Institute, 1986

23 LA Basin Oil Wells Pacific Ocean

24 LOCATION MAP N L.A. Basin Long Beach Oil Field Seal Beach Oil Field
California San Vicente Salt Lake Los Angeles Beverly Hills Sawtelle Montebello Las Cienegas L.A. Basin Cheviot Hills Whittier Inglewood Sansinena Potrero Bandini Playa Del Rey Brea Olinda Rosecrans Santa Fe Springs Coyote El Segundo Yorba Linda Dominguez Kraemer Pacific Ocean Richfield Torrance Long Beach Oil Field Seal Beach Oil Field N Wilmington Oil Field Newport Huntington Beach 4 8 12 Scale in Miles

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