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**EDEXCEL IGCSE / CERTIFICATE IN PHYSICS 5-2 Solids, Liquids and Gases**

Edexcel IGCSE Physics pages 169 to 177 November 7th 2012 Content applying to Triple Science only is shown in red type on the next slide and is indicated on subsequent slides by ‘TRIPLE ONLY’

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**Edexcel Specification**

Section 5: Solids, liquids and gases c) Change of state understand the changes that occur when a solid melts to form a liquid, and when a liquid evaporates or boils to form a gas describe the arrangement and motion of particles in solids, liquids and gases d) Ideal gas molecules understand the significance of Brownian motion, as supporting evidence for particle theory understand that molecules in a gas have a random motion and that they exert a force and hence a pressure on the walls of the container understand that there is an absolute zero of temperature which is – 273°C describe the Kelvin scale of temperature and be able to convert between the Kelvin and Celsius scales understand that an increase in temperature results in an increase in the speed of gas molecules understand that the Kelvin temperature of the gas is proportional to the average kinetic energy of its molecules describe the qualitative relationship between pressure and Kelvin temperature for a gas in a sealed container use the relationship between the pressure and Kelvin temperature of a fixed mass of gas at constant volume: p1 / T1 = p2 / T2 use the relationship between the pressure and volume of a fixed mass of gas at constant temperature: p1V1 = p2V2 Red type: Triple Science Only

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**States of matter 1. Solids**

TRIPLE ONLY States of matter Substances can exist as solids, liquids or gases. 1. Solids In a solid the particles (molecules) vibrate about fixed positions within a close packed regular structure. The particles cannot move in between each other which results in a solid having a definite shape and fixed volume. 3

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**2. Liquids When a solid is heated it may melt to form a liquid.**

TRIPLE ONLY 2. Liquids When a solid is heated it may melt to form a liquid. In a liquid the particles (molecules) move in-between each other and are approximately the same distance apart as in a solid. A liquid does not have a definite shape but it does have a fixed volume. 4 4

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**3. Gases When a gas is heated it may evaporate or boil to form a gas.**

TRIPLE ONLY 3. Gases When a gas is heated it may evaporate or boil to form a gas. In a gas the particles (molecules) move in-between each other and are much further apart than they are in a liquid. A gas takes up the shape and volume of its container. 5 5

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**Property summary table**

TRIPLE ONLY Property summary table Property Solids Liquids Gases definite shape yes no can be easily compressed relative density high low can flow (fluid) expands to fill container fixed volume 6 6

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TRIPLE ONLY

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**Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below:**

TRIPLE ONLY Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below: A solid has a definite _______ due to it consisting of closely packed _________ which cannot move in-between each other. When a solid is ________ to become a liquid the molecules can _______ in-between each other. However, the molecules remain ______ together and so a liquid is as _______ and incompressible as a solid. When a liquid becomes a gas the molecules fill up the _____ available. A gas is therefore is easily ____________. shape molecules heated move close dense space compressed WORD SELECTION: molecules dense move shape heated close space compressed 8 8 8

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**Molecular movement in gases**

A gas consists of molecules moving about in random motion. Due to collisions, the speed and direction of each molecule is continually changing in an unpredictable way. random motion 9 9

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Brownian motion The yellow sphere represents the pollen grain of smoke particle. The black particles represent water or air molecules. In 1827, Robert Brown observed through a microscope the motion of pollen grains suspended in water. The grains were seen to jerk about randomly. A similar observation can be seen with smoke particles suspended in air.

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**Observing Brownian Motion with Smoke**

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**The significance of Brownian Motion**

The yellow sphere represents the pollen grain of smoke particle. The black particles represent water or air molecules. Einstein, in 1905, proved mathematically that the motion of the smaller, invisible air molecules must be as random as the larger, visible smoke particles. The smoke particles move much more slowly than the air molecules due to their much greater mass. 12 12

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Gas pressure The particle theory of a gas explains gas pressure in the following way: Gas molecules in constant random motion. When a molecule collides with a surface it exerts a force on the surface as it changes its direction. The pressure exerted by the gas is equal to the total force in exerted by the molecules over an area of the surface divided by the area. 13

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Boyle’s law Boyle’s law states that the pressure of a gas is inversely proportional to its volume. This means that if the volume of a gas is doubled its pressure will halve. Boyle’s law only applies for a gas if its mass and temperature is kept constant while the volume is being changed. 14 14

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**p1 x V1 = p2 x V2 Mathematically Boyle’s law can be stated: where:**

p1 = initial gas pressure p2 = final gas pressure V1 = initial gas volume V2 = final gas volume 15 15

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**Boyle’s law question Boyle’s law: p1 x V1 = p2 x V2**

A gas has an initial volume of 30 m3 at atmospheric pressure (100 kPa). Calculate the final pressure of this gas if its volume is decreased to 10 m3. Boyle’s law: p1 x V1 = p2 x V2 100 kPa x 30 m3 = p2 x 10 m3 3 000k = 10 p2 p2 = 3 000k / 10 Final pressure = 300 kPa 16

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**Checking Boyle’s law experimentally**

Record the initial volume and pressure of the gas in the tube. Use the foot pump to decrease the volume of the gas in the tube. Record the new volume and pressure. Use the foot pump to obtain further sets of volume and pressure measurements. 17

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**Plot a graph of pressure, p **

(y-axis) against one divided by volume, 1 / V (x-axis). If this graph is a straight line through the origin then Boyle’s law is confirmed. Boyle’s law is also confirmed if each set of volume and pressure measurements give the same answer when they are multiplied together. That is: p x V = a constant pressure volume 1 18 18

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**Pressure against volume graph**

If a pressure is plotted against volume graph is plotted then a curved line is produced. This line does not intercept either of the axes. pressure (kPa) volume (cm3) 50 100 150 200 250 10 20 30 40 19 19

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**Complete: p1 / Pa V1 / cm3 p2 / Pa V2 / cm3 100 k 30 600 k 5 25 15**

75 20 80 50 k 150 k 10 50 5 200 k 125 25 k 60 500 k 20 20

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**Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below:**

A gas consists of particles called __________ that are in continual _________ motion. The pressure of a gas is caused by the _______ exerted by the molecules when they ________ and rebound off the surface experiencing the pressure. According to ________ law the pressure of a gas __________ by its volume is equal to a _________ number provided the _____________ of the gas does not change. molecules random force collide Boyle’s multiplied constant temperature WORD SELECTION: multiplied temperature constant Boyle’s collide random force molecules 21 21 21

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Absolute zero As temperature decreases the average speed at which molecules move decreases. Eventually at a temperature called absolute zero all molecules will cease moving. Absolute zero = - 273°C (more exactly = °C) It is not possible to achieve this temperature. The current (2012) record lowest temperature is: – °C 22

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**The kelvin temperature scale**

This kelvin scale starts from absolute zero: 0 kelvin (0 K) = °C A change of one kelvin is the same as a change of one °C Therefore: 0 °C (melting ice) = K 100 °C (boiling water) = K kelvin temperature = °C temperature + 273 Note: It is incorrect to write or say “degrees kelvin” 23

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**Complete (use ‘273’): Situation Celsius (oC) Absolute (K) - 270 3 - 89**

Intergalactic space - 270 3 Vostok Antarctica 1983 - 89 184 Average Earth Surface 15 288 Gas flame 1500 1773 Sun’s surface 5727 6000 24

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**Gas pressure and temperature**

Cold gas As temperature increases: molecules move quickly therefore exerting a greater force and so producing a greater pressure Hot gas 25 25

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**Molecular kinetic energy**

TRIPLE ONLY Molecular kinetic energy As temperature increases the average speed and kinetic energy of the molecules increases. With an ideal gas: The average kinetic energy of the molecules is proportional to the kelvin temperature. 26

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**Question 1 The temperature of a gas is increased from**

TRIPLE ONLY Question 1 The temperature of a gas is increased from - 123°C to 377 °C. What change occurs to the average kinetic energy of the gas molecules? initial gas temperature = -123°C = 150 K final gas temperature = 327°C = 600 K the kelvin temperature increases by 4 times therefore average kinetic energy increases by 4 times 27

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TRIPLE ONLY Question 2 When the temperature of a gas is increased from 27°C the average speed of the molecules increases three fold. Calculate the final temperature of the gas. kinetic energy = ½ mv2 If the speed, v increases by 3 times, the kinetic energy increases by 32, 9 times. and so the kelvin temperature increases by 9 times. initial temperature = 27°C = 300 K therefore final temperature = 9 x 300 K = 2700 K (or 2427 °C) 28

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TRIPLE ONLY The Pressure Law The pressure law states that the pressure of a fixed mass of gas at a constant volume is proportional to its kelvin temperature. This means that if the kelvin temperature of a gas is doubled its pressure will also double. 29

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**p1 = p2 T1 T2 Mathematically the pressure law can be stated: Where:**

TRIPLE ONLY Mathematically the pressure law can be stated: p1 = p2 T T2 Where: p1 = the initial pressure p2 = the final pressure T1 = the initial kelvin temperature T2 = the final kelvin temperature 30 30

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TRIPLE ONLY Pressure law question A gas has an initial pressure of 40kPa at a temperature of - 73oC. Calculate the final pressure of this gas if its temperature is increased to 327oC at a constant volume. Pressure law: p1 / T1 = p2 / T2 Temperatures must be in kelvin! so: T1 = 200K and T2 = 600K 40 kPa / 200K = p2 / 600K p2 = ( x 600) / 200 Final pressure = 120 kPa 31

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**Checking the pressure law experimentally**

TRIPLE ONLY Checking the pressure law experimentally Record the initial pressure of the air in the round bottomed flask and the temperature of the water bath which is equal to the temperature of the air. Use the heater to increase the temperature. Record the new temperature and pressure. Obtain further sets of temperature and pressure measurements. Convert all temperature measurements to kelvin. 32 32

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**Plot a graph of pressure, p **

TRIPLE ONLY Plot a graph of pressure, p (y-axis) against temperature in kelvin, T (x-axis). If this graph is a straight line through the origin then the pressure law is confirmed. The pressure law is also confirmed if each set of kelvin temperature and pressure measurements give the same answer when the pressure is divided by the kelvin temperature. That is: p ÷ V = a constant pressure kelvin temperature 33 33

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**Pressure against °C temperature graph**

TRIPLE ONLY Pressure against °C temperature graph The straight line crosses the temperature axis at absolute zero (-273°C) 34 34

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**Complete: p1 T1 p2 T2 100 kPa 300 K 150 K 60 kPa 200 K 240 kPa 800 K**

TRIPLE ONLY Complete: p1 T1 p2 T2 100 kPa 300 K 150 K 60 kPa 200 K 240 kPa 800 K 120 kPa 600 K 50 kPa 300 kPa 360 K 27oC 627oC 150 kPa 450 K 50 kPa 800 K 160 kPa 60 K 150 kPa 27°C 35

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**Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below:**

TRIPLE ONLY Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below: When the _______ temperature of a gas is doubled the average _______ energy of its molecules is also doubled. The ________ law states that the pressure of a gas is ___________ to its kelvin temperature provided its ______ and volume remain constant. According to the pressure law, the pressure of a gas should fall to _______ at a temperature of _________, also known as absolute zero. kelvin kinetic pressure proportional mass zero - 273°C WORD SELECTION: proportional - 273°C pressure kelvin kinetic zero mass 36 36

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**Solids, Liquids and Gases Notes questions from pages 169 to 177**

TRIPLE ONLY Solids, Liquids and Gases Notes questions from pages 169 to 177 Outline how the properties of solids, liquids and gases depend on their molecular structure and molecular movement (see pages 170 & 171) What is meant by ‘Brownian Motion’? State Boyle’s law and describe how it can be verified experimentally. State and explain how the pressure exerted by a gas changes with temperature. Define the kelvin temperature scale and state the kelvin temperature of (a) 0°C, (b) 100 °C and (c) absolute zero. State the pressure law and describe how it can be verified experimentally. Answer the questions on pages 176 and 177. Verify that you can do all of the items listed in the end of chapter checklist on page 176.

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**Solids, Liquids and Gases Notes questions from pages 169 to 177**

DOUBLE SCIENCE ONLY Solids, Liquids and Gases Notes questions from pages 169 to 177 What is meant by ‘Brownian Motion’? State Boyle’s law and describe how it can be verified experimentally. State and explain how the pressure exerted by a gas changes with temperature. Define the kelvin temperature scale and state the kelvin temperature of (a) 0°C, (b) 100 °C and (c) absolute zero. Answer questions 2, 4 5 and 6 on pages 176 and 177. 38

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Online Simulations States of matter - PhET - Watch different types of molecules form a solid, liquid, or gas. Add or remove heat and watch the phase change. Change the temperature or volume of a container and see a pressure-temperature diagram respond in real time. Relate the interaction potential to the forces between molecules Gas Properties -PhET - Pump gas molecules to a box and see what happens as you change the volume, add or remove heat, change gravity, and more. Measure the temperature and pressure, and discover how the properties of the gas vary in relation to each other. Molecular model of an ideal gas This has gas molecules in a cylinder-piston set up. Volume, pressure etc. can be varied - NTNU Brownian Motion - NTNU Brownian Motion - Virginia

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