Presentation on theme: "Shale Gas Greening of America?"— Presentation transcript:
1Shale Gas Greening of America? By Ethan Bellavance, Kaylyn Hawkes, Justin Grodman, Dan Hale, Caitlin Shea
2What is Shale Gas? 95.5% Methane, 2.5% Ethane, 0.2% Propane. Large Domestic Source of energy5.4 Tcf/year in 1998 to 8.9 Tcf/year in 2007Arthur, J Daniel. (2008). An Overview of Modern Shale Gas Development in the United States. AllConsulting. llc.com/publicdownloads/ALLShaleOverviewFINAL.pdfUSGS
3Natural Gas Production Arthur, J Daniel. (2008). An Overview of Modern Shale Gas Development in the United States. AllConsulting. llc.com/publicdownloads/ALLShaleOverviewFINAL.pdf
4Types of Unconventional Natural Gas Tight Gas SandsCoal Bed MethaneGas Shale’s- Most Expansive Growth, Comprise 50-60% of countries reserves growth by 2011Arthur, J Daniel. (2008). An Overview of Modern Shale Gas Development in the United States. AllConsulting. llc.com/publicdownloads/ALLShaleOverviewFINAL.pdf
5Three factors that have created the unconventional natural gas industry. Directional DrillingHydraulic FracturingHigh well prices
6Marcellus ShaleDeposited over 350 Million years ago.USGS
8ObjectivesAssess whether water release from acid fracturing is detrimental to surface water and aquifers?Determine if the amount of water necessary for acid fracturing can be sustainably extracted from existing watershed aquifers.Observe how the process of acid fracturing effects local ecosystems.Analyze the national and local socioeconomic impact of acid fracturing in regard to potential job creation, US energy profile, social values, and land use.
10Slickwater Treatments Introduction of “rock acid” - cleans out wellSlickwater plug- formed with water, sand and additives. Friction reducing chemicals to allow faster pumping.Fracturing- over a million gallons of water, sand and chemicals.Flush- recovery of water in pumps to allow collection of gases.
12Acid Fracturing Each Fracture is unique Based on local stress conditions.Typically contains 98% water and sand, and 2% chemicalsCurrently 197 products used in slickwater process, 152 products knownNYS Department of Environmental Conservation, 2009).
13Chemical Additives(NYS Department of Environmental Conservation, 2009)
15Water Withdrawals Variety of sources Proximity to drill site Three to four million gallons for typical horizontal shale gas well0.5 to six million gallons for hydraulic fracturing of the Marcellus ShaleUsed in relatively short time period
16Water Transport Location and type of sources Longer route distance = more expensive and less water efficiencyReliability of source as constant supplyRate and timing of withdrawals are key
17Effects on Water Resources Reduction in stream flowStream’s uses and public supplies alteredAdjacent habitats alteredRecreational uses, potable and culinary uses, fish survival and propagation, disposal of wastes
18Effects Continued Depletion of aquifers Cumulative withdrawals Occurs when volume extracted > recharge ratePotentially lead to reduction to aboveground bodies of waterTranslocation of water from watershed
19Ecosystem Impacts Adverse effects on local ecosystems Natural cycles essential to ecosystemsAlterations in flow regimes affect habitatImproper techniques and structures for withdrawingWater uptake flow velocityTransporting invasive species
20Effects on Wetlands Susceptibility to draining of water Quantity withdrawn has direct impacts depending on natural dynamics of flowVariety of species significantly affected
22Produced Water Byproduct of the stimulation and drilling process Before natural gas can be recovered, water that is pumped into the shale must be allowed to flow out as “produced water”Can consist of fracturing fluids, heavy metals, brine waters, dissolved minerals or organic matter from the shale(Arthur 2008)
24Chemical AdditivesNo “one size fits all” percentage that are added to fracture fluidAdditives in a single hydrofrac job result in approximately 15,000 gallons of chemical wasteMost are proprietaryAll are necessary in order to ensure the success of the drilling processRisk to human and environmental health is low(Soeder 2009), (Arthur 2008), (NYSDEC 2009)
25Threats to Drinking Water Drilling must pass through shallow drinking water aquifersWell casings made of steel and concrete can become defective or damagedPotential chemical spillsRoad/construction activity(Cornell University 2010)
26Wastewater Treatment Plants Cannot handle the quantity of water usedUnsure of the chemical composition of the proprietary chemicals used in the acid fracturing processDo not successfully remove salts and other dissolved solids(Soeder 2009)
27Additional Treatment Methods Re-inject produced water into the ground at a shallow depthRe-inject produced water into the ground at a depth below the Marcellus ShaleAllow wastewater to evaporate from open pits or tanksDilute produced water and reuse it in future fracturing operationsNew technology…(NYSDEC 2009), (Soeder 2009)
28Habitat Fragmentation Inevitable consequence of all mining practicesOccurs through construction of unpaved roads, pipelines and infrastructure:Well pads drilling rigs, storage facilities, heavy machinerynecessary to mine natural gas and eventually transport it off site
29RoadsGenerally includes removing large rocks and vegetation, and replacing them with crushed gravel or stoneEach well-site must have an access roadAccording to NY DEC every 150ft of 30ft access road adds 1/10 acre to the total disturbed surface area attributed to the well siteHighly used fragments, such as access roads, significantly increase impactEdge sensitive species affected mostIncreased erosion contributes to habitat and water-quality degradation
30Sedimentation and Erosion Overflow off roads and impervious drilling pads alters slopes and soils and further ↑ surface water quality issuesPlants rooting is disruptedAquatic receptors are affected by increased sedimentation increasing TSS in the water columnVelocity and volume of runoff ↑ with reciprocal ↓ in infiltration (impermeable surfaces)Chemicals and pollutants are present on impermeable surfacesPollutants adhere to eroded sediment particles
31Ecological Receptor- Trout Rising Stake-holder concernChesapeake Bay Association PA and NY trout association, land owners, fishermenMarcellus Shale spans under the Appalachian basin which provides headwaters for numerous streams valued for trout habitatSalinity, acidity, and toxicity in mine runoff are of concern for trout health and ability to reproduceIncreased impervious surfaces and increase acidity have been shown to negatively affect Brook Trout populations in the NorthEast (Conservation Strategy Work Group, 2005)Mine drainage in has historically in PA and WV has drastically decreased stream ecological healthUSGS records over 3,400 miles of streams and GW contaminated in PA alone due to mining practices (USEPA, 2001)
32Edge-related StressIncreased edge will affect some species more drastically than othersLife history traits, population numbers, physical size, physical size and amount of area needed per individualGolden-winged and prairie warbler have shown increase abundance in early succession edge areasResults NOT shown when fragmentation is maintained by constant use and trafficCerulean warbler – Edge sensitive species inhabitaing areas along Marcellus Shale territoryLargely impacted by habitat fragmentation due to mining
33Soil Compaction & Reclamation Overburden must be removed to gain access to bedrockStockpiling of this material is essential for reclamation effortsWhere overburden is not removed, continuous use of heavy machinery compacts soilsIncreased bulk density ratesCreates difficult habitat for plant rootingLower water infiltration ratesContributes to ↑ surface runoff
34Reclamation Techniques Open pits must be backfilledSoils must be tested for salinity, acidity and toxicity in order to prepare restoration planSalinity acidity and toxicity will likely all contribute to Shale gas sites due to:salts, hydroflouric acid, heavy metal leaching and a variety of chemicals used in the fracking liquidGrading and scraping to loosen soils and adding Lime and fertilizer are recommendedMany mine Reclamation sites fail due to soil toxicity
35Recommendations for Water Management Communicating with local water planning agencies is essential for the operators of the drills in order to manage water sources.Using several large sources of water instead of many smaller ones.Ensuring that the withdrawal of every water source used will not significantly nor permanently deplete that source.Choosing water sources in close proximity to mine site.Ensuring the safe and effective disposal of produced water from the acid fracturing process.Continue to research the proper disposal of produced water in order to create more effective methods of treatment.
36Recommendations for Land Use Change In order to protect trout populations, drilling should not be permitted in areas deemed sensitive coldwater habitats.Multiple wells should be placed along the same access road, while utilizing current roads as much as possible.Areas of sensitivity such as steep slopes, wetlands, and streams should be avoided.Proper erosion controls must be implemented.Topsoil must be maintained for proper reclamation. Catch ponds and/or artificial wetlands must be provided to store, filter and monitor surface runoff from mine sites.
37Works CitedArthur, J Daniel. (2008). An Overview of Modern Shale Gas Development in the United States. All Consulting.Soeder, Daniel and William Kappel. (2009). Water Resources and Natural Gas Production from the Marcellus Shale. USGS. https://webmail.uvm.edu/horde/imp/view.php popup_view=1&index=11782&mailbox=INBOX&actionID=view_attach&id=2&mimecache=e6686c56f385749fe f9e4d3eNew York State Department of Environmental Conservation. (2009). Supplemental Generic Environmental Impact Statement on the Oil, Gas and Solution Mining Regulatory Program.Cornell University. Water Quality Information for Consumers.USEPA (U. S. Environmental Protection Agency) What is the State of the Environment in the Mid-Atlantic Region? Technical report EPA/903F/F-01/003. Region 3, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.Conservation Strategy Work Group. (2005) Conserving the Eastern Brook Trout: status, threat and trends.