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EASY5 Gas Dynamics Library - Chart 1 Research and Technology EASY5 Gas Dynamics Library EASY5 ® Gas Dynamics Library Preview

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EASY5 Gas Dynamics Library - Chart 2 Research and Technology EASY5 Gas Dynamics Library l EASY5 Gas Dynamics Modeling- History s EASY5 predecessor EASY4 resulted from a Boeing contract to model aircraft environmental control systems. s Environmental control (EC) library models many aspects of compressible gas flow s Other custom libraries for gas dynamics have been supplied to customers as a result of consulting contracts and ensuing development efforts.

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EASY5 Gas Dynamics Library - Chart 3 Research and Technology EASY5 Gas Dynamics Library l Major features include: s Multispecies, variable composition gases s User choice of equation of states m Ideal gas m Built-in real gas: Lee-Kestler correlation m User-defined real gas s Built-in or user-defined gas species s Common connection scheme for fluid-flow components s Component Groups m Pipes: transient and steady momentum m Orifices m Valves m Heat exchangers m Gas-cycle machines m Nodes and volumes m Actuators m Body Dynamics m Forces

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EASY5 Gas Dynamics Library - Chart 4 Research and Technology EASY5 Gas Dynamics Library l Major features continued: s Choice of SI, English units s Consideration of humidity effects s Rigorous formulation of mass, energy and momentum balances s Molecular (vacuum) flow can be modeled

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EASY5 Gas Dynamics Library - Chart 5 Research and Technology EASY5 Gas Dynamics Library l Variable composition gas streams l Composition modeled with species partial pressure states s for a single-species gas, partial pressure = pressure s for invariant composition, treat multispecies gas as single species (air, for example) s inlet partial pressure vector is usually a state l Density, viscosity, thermal conductivity and thermochemical properties are functions of pressure, temperature and composition. Multispecies Gases

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EASY5 Gas Dynamics Library - Chart 6 Research and Technology EASY5 Gas Dynamics Library l Ideal Gas l Built-in Real Gas s Lee-Kestler 3-Parameter Correlation for Thermodynamic Properties m Table based deviations from ideal gas behavior Independent Variables: T r =T/T c, P r =P/P c, accentric factor Compressibility (Z=P/ RT) m Residual Enthalpy: H r =(H-H ig )/RT c m Residual Entropy: S r =(S-S ig )/R m 0 < T r < 4, 0 < P r < 10 s Transport properties m Equation based correlations for single or multispecies gases m Temperature, pressure and composition dependent l Built-in Real Gas s User supplies routines to calculate thermodynamic and transport properties s EASY5 supplies critical properties Equation of States

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EASY5 Gas Dynamics Library - Chart 7 Research and Technology EASY5 Gas Dynamics Library l Eight gas species are built-in at present: s Air, N 2, O 2, H 2 O, CO 2, CO, SO 2, H 2 l User-defined species are easily included s User supplies: m critical properties m specific heat (as function of temperature) m viscosity (as function of temperature) m thermal conductivity (as function of temperature) Definition of Gas Species

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EASY5 Gas Dynamics Library - Chart 8 Research and Technology EASY5 Gas Dynamics Library l All fluid-flow components have the same ported input/output structure l Enabled by implicit modeling, Radau54 integrator Common Connection Scheme s Inlet Port s Exit Port s Temperature (TR2) s Pressure (PP2, vector) s Kinetic energy (KR2) s Temperature (TF1) s Mass flow (W1, vector) s Kinetic energy (KF1) s Temperature (TR2) s Mass flow (W2, vector) s Kinetic energy (KF2) s Temperature (TR1) s Pressure (PP1, vector) s Kinetic energy (KR1)

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EASY5 Gas Dynamics Library - Chart 9 Research and Technology EASY5 Gas Dynamics Library l Pipes s Discretized transient momentum s Steady-momentum pipe l Orifices s Fixed-diameter orifice s Variable area orifice l Valves s Check valve s Relief valve s Butterfly/globe/gate valve s Four way valve s Three way valves m One inlet, two exits m Two inlets, one exit Components and Groups

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EASY5 Gas Dynamics Library - Chart 10 Research and Technology EASY5 Gas Dynamics Library l Valves (continued) s Servo Valve s Pressure-regulating valve (with control logic) l Heat exchangers ( thermally connectable to HC, VC and EC heat exchangers ) s Gas Primary s Gas Secondary l Gas-cycle machines s Compressor s Motor/turbine l Miscellaneous s Gas Properties (with units definition) s Filter Components and Groups (continued)

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EASY5 Gas Dynamics Library - Chart 11 Research and Technology EASY5 Gas Dynamics Library l Nodes and Volumes s Node with one inlet port, one exit port s Node with four inlet ports, four exit ports s Variable volume l Actuators s Single-chambered actuator s Dual-chambered actuator s Kit components: m Active actuator building block m Passive actuator building block m Actuator end- piston external force input m Actuator end- mass dynamics input Components and Groups (continued)

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EASY5 Gas Dynamics Library - Chart 12 Research and Technology EASY5 Gas Dynamics Library l Body Dynamics (same as HV library) s Single moving mass with hard limits, friction s Two masses with hard limits, friction l Forces (same as HV library) s Pressure force and/or volume for two chambers s Force and/or volume from dimensions and pressures s Viscous damping forces s Steady-state flow forces s Sum of forces s Transient flow forces s Spring force s Solenoid force s Spring stop Components and Groups (continued)

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EASY5 Gas Dynamics Library - Chart 13 Research and Technology EASY5 Gas Dynamics Library Pneumatic Linear Positioning Model

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EASY5 Gas Dynamics Library - Chart 14 Research and Technology EASY5 Gas Dynamics Library Actuator Submodel

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EASY5 Gas Dynamics Library - Chart 15 Research and Technology EASY5 Gas Dynamics Library Pneumatic Linear Position: Output

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