2The Beginning The first gas studied was air. The studies were very important to understanding gas behavior because:Air is a mixture of gases.It still behaved as one gas.So…all gases, under similar conditions, behave similarly
3Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases Assumes gas particles are in constant motionUsed to explain gas behaviorBased on five assumptions
4Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases Assumption #1Gases consist of large numbers of tiny particles whose sizes are negligible in comparison to their distance from each other.Translation: Gas molecules are very small and far apart, giving the gas a low density and the property of compressibility
5Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases Assumption #2Collisions between gas particles and collisions between gas particles and the walls of the container are elastic.Translation: No kinetic energy is lost in the collisions; it is transferred
6Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases Assumption #3Particles of gas are continually, rapidly, and randomly moving, thereby possessing kinetic energy.Translation: Gas particles are not attracted to each other because their kinetic energy is too strong; gas particles never stop; they are always moving
7Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases Assumption #4Gas particles have no forces of attraction or repulsion between them.Translation: Gas particles will not “stick” together when they collide; they bounce off each other
8Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases Assumption #5The temperature of the gas affects the average kinetic energy of gas particles.Translation: Temperature is a measure of average kinetic energy; higher temp.=higher KE
9Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases The KMT only applies to “ideal gases”—theoretical gasesOther gases are called “real gases”Real gases behave almost ideally when the pressure is not too high and/or the temperature is not too low
10Kinetic Energy (KE)The energy of motionKE = ½ mv2m = massv = speed
11Try ThisA 68 kg track runner is running at 10 m/s and a 136 kg football player is running at 5 m/s. Which has more kinetic energy?KE = ½ (68 kg)(10 m/s)2 = JKE = ½ (136)(5 m/s)2 = 1700 JTrack runner
12Volume Volume is measured in: Liters (L) Milliliters (mL) Cubic centimeters (cm3 or cc)
13Pressure Pressure is measured in: Atmospheres (atm) Millimeters of mercury (mm Hg)Kilopascals (kPa)Torricelli (torr)Pounds per square inch (psi)
14Temperature Temperature is measured in: Celsius (°C) Kelvin (K) Fahrenheit (°F)
15Standard Temperature and Pressure 0°C or 273 K1 atm or 760 mm Hg or 760 torr or kPa
16The Gas LawsDeveloped to help create relationships between volume, pressure, temperature, and amount of a gas.First person to collect and analyze a gas—Robert Boyle
17The Gas LawsBoyle’s Law: volume of a fixed mass of gas varies inversely with the pressure at constant temperatureTranslation: When pressure (P) increases, volume (V) decreases. When P decreases, V increasesMathematically: P1V1=P2V2
18Important!Units must be the same thing. For instance if P1 is in mm of Hg then P2 must also be measured in mm of Hg.If V1 is measured in mL then V2 must also be measured in mL.
19The Gas Laws Boyle’s Law Problem: A gas at a pressure of 608 mm Hg is held in a container with a volume of 545 L. If the volume of the container is increased to 1065 L, and temperature is held constant, what is the new pressure of the gas?
20The Gas Laws Boyle’s Law Solution: Have: P1=608 mm Hg V1=545 L Want: P2Use Boyle’s Law Equation P1V1=P2V2
21The Gas Laws Boyle’s Law Solution P1V1 = P2V2 (608 mm Hg)(545 L) = (P2)(1065 L)311 mm Hg
22Try this!A high- altitude balloon contains 30.0 L of helium gas at 103 kPa. What is the volume when the balloon rises to an altitude where the pressure is only 25.0 kPa? (Assume that the temperature remains constant)
23AnswerP1V1 = P2V2(103 kPa)(30.0 L) = (25.0 kPa)(V2)124 L
24Have you ever had the experience of buying a helium filled balloon and then taking it outside on a cold day? If you have you noticed that the balloon shrunk and looked like there was not enough helium put in it. However if you ever put a helium balloon in your car on a HOT day you will return to find that the balloon has exploded. Why do these things happen?
25The Gas LawsCharles’ Law—relationship between gas temperature and volumethe volume of a fixed mass of gas at constant pressure varies directly with the Kelvin temperatureTranslation: when V increases, T increases, and when V decreases, T decreasesMathematically:
26Important!The Kinetic Theory of Gases states that the kinetic energy of a gas is proportional to its temperature and using a Celsius scale would cause the kinetic energy of a gas to be negative…which is impossible!Change the temperature to Kelvin!!!!
27Remember…all temperatures must be in Kelvin K = ºC + 273
28The Gas Laws Charles’ Law Problem A sample of neon gas occupies a volume of 752 mL at 25ºC. What volume will the gas occupy at 50ºC if the pressure remains constant?Remember…the gas laws will be applied; all temperatures must be in Kelvin!
29The Gas Laws Charles’ Law Solution Have: V1=752 mL T1=25ºC + 273=298 K Want: V2 in mLUse:Solve: mL = V2298 K K815 mL
30Try This!A balloon inflated in a room at 24°C has a volume of 4.00 L. The balloon is then heated to a temperature of 58°C. What is the new volume if the pressure remains constant?
31Answer V1 = V2 T1 T2 T1: 24°C + 273 = 297 K T2: 58°C + 273 = 331 K 4.00 L = V2297 K K4.46 L
32The Gas LawsGay-Lussac’s Law—relationship between gas pressure and temperaturepressure of a fixed mass of gas at a constant volume varies directly with the Kelvin temperatureTranslation: When pressure increases, temp. increases; when pressure decreases, temp. decreasesMathematically:
33The Gas Laws Gay-Lussac’s Law Problem: The gas in an aerosol can is at a pressure of 3.00 atm at 25ºC. Directions on the can warn the user not to keep the can in a place where the temperature exceeds 52ºC. What would the gas pressure in the can be at 52ºC?Remember to convert temperatures to Kelvin!!
34Answer P1 = P2 T1 T2 T1: 25°C + 273 = 298 K T2: 52°C + 273 = 325 K 3.00 atm = P2298 K K3.27 atm
35Try This!A gas has a pressure of 6.58 kPa at 539 K. What will be the pressure at 211 K if the volume does not change?
37The Gas Laws Combined Gas Law: combination of all three laws Mathematically:
38The volume of a gas -filled balloon is 30 The volume of a gas -filled balloon is 30.0 L at 40°C and 153 kPa pressure. What volume will the balloon have at standard temperature and pressure?Standard Pressure = 760 torr = 1 atm = 101.3kPaStandard Temp. = 273 K
39Answer P1V1 = P2V2 T1 T2 T1: 40°C + 273 = 313 K T2: 0°C + 273 = 273 K (153 kPa)(30.0 L) = (101.3 kPa)(V2)313 K K39.5 L
40The Gas LawsDalton’s Law of Partial Pressures: the total pressure of a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures of each individual gasTranslation: the sum of the parts equals the wholeMathematically: PT = P1 + P2 + P3 +…
41Air contains oxygen, nitrogen , carbon dioxide and trace amounts of other gases. What is the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) at kPa of total pressure if the partial pressure of nitrogen,carbon dioxide and other gases are kPa, kPa and 0.94 kPa respectively.
43Ideal Gas LawGases behave differently under different circumstances (each gas has a different molar mass)Use term “ideal gas” to describe gas behavior under all circumstancesNo such thing as ideal gas…they are “real gases”In reality gases can be liquefied and sometimes solidified by cooling and by applying pressure whereas ideal gases cannot be. So real gases do not behave like ideal gases under high pressures and at low temperatures.
44Ideal Gas LawPV = nRTP is pressure may be labeled kPa, atm, mm Hg, or torrV is volume must be labeled Ln is moles
45Ideal Gas Law Continued R is a constant whose value is determined by P.If P is labeled kPa R = 8.314If P is labeled atm R =If P is labeled mm Hg or torr R = 62.4T is temperature must be labeled K
46Try This!You fill a rigid steel cylinder that has a volume of 20.0 L with nitrogen gas to a final pressure of torrs at 28°C. How many moles of nitrogen gas does the cylinder contain?Convert Temperature to Kelvin!
47AnswerPV = nRT28°C = 301 K( torr)(20.0 L) = n (62.4)(301 K)160. moles of N2
48Try This!What volume is occupied by 5.03 g of hydrogen gas at 28°C and a pressure of 2.0 atm?Hint: Convert grams to moles and °C to K!
49Answer PV = nRT 5.03 g ÷ 2.0 g/mol = 2.515 mol H2 28°C + 273 = 301 K (2 atm)(V) = (2.515 mol)(0.0821)(301 K)31 L
50Ideal Gas Law Finding the molar mass M = mRT PV M = molar mass and m = gramsWhat is the molar mass of a gas if 372 ml have a mass of grams at 100ºC and 108 kPa of pressure?
51AnswerM = mRTPVWhat is the molar mass of a gas if 372 ml have a mass of grams at 100ºC and 108 kPa of pressure?372 mL ÷ 1000 = L100°C = 373 KM = (0.920 g)(8.314)(373 K)(108 kPa)(0.372 L)71.0 g/mol
52Try This!A container holds 2240 L of methane gas (CH4) at a pressure of 1.50 kPa and a temperature of 42°C. How many grams of CH4 does this container hold?
54Diffusion and Effusion Diffusion is the gradual mixing of gases due to the random, spontaneous motion of the gas particlesEffusion is the process by which gas molecules trapped in a container randomly pass through tiny openings in the containerWhat are everyday examples of diffusion or effusion?
55ExamplesDiffusion: perfume spreading, smelling cooking food, and smell something burningEffusion: tire puncture and a pin hole in a balloon
56Diffusion and Effusion Rates of diffusion/effusion depends on the velocity of the moleculesVelocity depends on temperature and massWould hot or cold particles move faster?Would heavy particles move slower or faster?
57Diffusion and Effusion Graham’s Law—relationship between rate of effusion (diffusion) and molar massthe rate of effusion of gases at the same temperature and pressure are inversely proportional to the square root of the molar massMathematically:
58Nitrogen effuses at 535 m/s. How much faster will helium gas effuse? Graham noticed that gases of lower molar mass effuse faster than gases of higher molar mass.Nitrogen effuses at 535 m/s. How much faster will helium gas effuse?535 m/s = √4x m/s √281415 m/s ÷ 535 m/s2.6 times faster