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Solids, Liquids and Gases

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1 Solids, Liquids and Gases
KS3 Chemistry Solids, Liquids and Gases

2 7G Solids, Liquids and Gases
Contents 7G Solids, Liquids and Gases Introducing states of matter The particle model Properties of solids, liquids and gases Diffusion Summary activities

3 Different substances What are the names of the substances described in this table? (The first letters spell out another word for ‘substance’.) Liquid metal Solid used in aircraft Solid used to coat steel cans Intoxicating liquid Radioactive solid Solid that rusts Unreactive gas Solid used by Roman plumbers Mercury Aluminium Tin Ethanol Radium Iron Argon Lead Aluminium Lead Ethanol Radium What different types of materials are there? Argon Mercury Iron Tin

4 solid liquid gas Three states of matter
At room temperature most substances exist in one of three physical states. solid liquid gas

5 Solid, liquid or gas?

6 Solid, liquid or gas?

7 7G Solids, Liquids and Gases
Contents 7G Solids, Liquids and Gases Introducing states of matter The particle model Properties of solids, liquids and gases Diffusion Summary activities

8 particle model The particle model
The difference between solids, liquids and gases can be explained by the… particle model All substances are made up of particles. The particles are attracted to each other. Some particles are attracted strongly to each other and others weakly. The particles move around. They are described as having kinetic energy. The kinetic energy of the particles increases with temperature.

9 Particles in a solid – animation

10 Particles in a liquid – animation

11 Particles in a gas – animation

12 7G Solids, Liquids and Gases
Contents 7G Solids, Liquids and Gases Introducing states of matter The particle model Properties of solids, liquids and gases Diffusion Summary activities

13 Properties of solids, liquids and gases

14 Which state of matter am I?

15 7G Solids, Liquids and Gases
Contents 7G Solids, Liquids and Gases Introducing states of matter The particle model Properties of solids, liquids and gases Diffusion Summary activities

16 How do smells spread out?
Where is the smell coming from and how does it spread out?

17 What is diffusion? Diffusion is the movement of particles that allows them to spread out and mix with other particles. For example, the smell of aftershave or perfume diffuses and is detected by people on the other side of the room. Use the particle model to explain these facts about diffusion: Diffusion occurs in liquids and gases but hardly at all in solids. Diffusion happens more quickly for gases than for liquids. Diffusion happens more quickly at warm temperatures than at cooler temperatures.

18 Diffusion animation 1

19 Diffusion animation 2

20 Diffusion experiment In this experiment, two gases diffuse towards each other in a sealed glass tube. gases meet here cotton wool soaked in ammonia solution cotton wool soaked in concentrated hydrochloric acid When the gases meet, they react to form a ring of ammonium chloride which is closer to one end of the tube than the other. Which gas particles diffuse faster, ammonia or acid, and why? By the time the gases meet, the ammonia particles have travelled further down the tube so they must have diffused at a faster speed.

21 7G Solids, Liquids and Gases
Contents 7G Solids, Liquids and Gases Introducing states of matter The particle model Properties of solids, liquids and gases Diffusion Summary activities

22 Glossary diffusion – Particles spreading out and mixing in the gas or liquid state. gas – The state of matter in which particles move quickly in all directions and rarely touch each other. liquid – The state of matter in which particles are randomly arranged and touch each other. matter – The stuff that everything is made of. particle – The smallest unit of matter. pressure – The force produced when particles move against a surface. solid – The state of matter in which particles are in a fixed arrangement and touch each other.

23 Anagrams

24 Crossword Across: 2. Change from liquid to solid
5. Force caused by collisions of particles 6. Arranged in a 3-dimensional pattern 9. Spacing of particles in solids and liquids 10. All substances are this state at very low temperatures 11. Only liquids and gases do this 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Down: 1. Closely packed particles 6. Particles are close but disorganised 3. Change from gas to liquid 7. Particles widely spread out 4. Change from solid to liquid 8. Change from liquid to gas

25 Multiple-choice quiz


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