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**Temperature and Ideal Gas**

Everything is made of atoms In gases the molecules don’t interact with each other. Simple How does the atomic (molecular) nature of a gas explain its properties? Air in your tires? How hot is hot? How cold is cold?

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Temperature The quantity indicating how warm or cold an object is relative to some standard is TEMPERATURE (T). T does not depend on quantity of a substance. A cup and a thimble of boiling water both have same T. When two objects have the same temperature, they are in thermal equilibrium. Heat is the flow of energy due to a temperature difference. Heat always flows from objects at high temperature to objects at low temperature.

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**There is no heat flow between objects in thermal equilibrium**

The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: If two objects are each in thermal equilibrium with a third object, then the two objects are in thermal equilibrium with each other. There is no heat flow between objects in thermal equilibrium

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**Temperature Scales (*) Values given at 1 atmosphere of pressure.**

Fahrenheit scale Water boils* 212 F Water freezes* 32 F Absolute zero F Could incorporate personal response system questions from the College Physics by G/R/R 2E ARIS site (www.mhhe.com/grr), Instructor Resources: CPS by eInstruction, Chapter 13, Questions 1, 2, and 3. (*) Values given at 1 atmosphere of pressure.

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**Temperature Scales (*) Values given at 1 atmosphere of pressure.**

Fahrenheit scale Celsius scale Water boils* 212 F 100 C Water freezes* 32 F 0 C Absolute zero F 273.15C Could incorporate personal response system questions from the College Physics by G/R/R 2E ARIS site (www.mhhe.com/grr), Instructor Resources: CPS by eInstruction, Chapter 13, Questions 1, 2, and 3. (*) Values given at 1 atmosphere of pressure.

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**Temperature Scales (*) Values given at 1 atmosphere of pressure.**

Absolute or Kelvin scale Fahrenheit scale Celsius scale Water boils* K 212 F 100 C Water freezes* K 32 F 0 C Absolute zero 0 K F 273.15C Could incorporate personal response system questions from the College Physics by G/R/R 2E ARIS site (www.mhhe.com/grr), Instructor Resources: CPS by eInstruction, Chapter 13, Questions 1, 2, and 3. (*) Values given at 1 atmosphere of pressure.

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**The temperature scales are related by:**

Fahrenheit/Celsius Absolute/Celsius

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Example (text problem 13.3): (a) At what temperature (if any) does the numerical value of Celsius degrees equal the numerical value of Fahrenheit degrees? (b) At what temperature (if any) does the numerical value of kelvins equal the numerical value of Fahrenheit degrees?

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**Question Which is smaller, a change of 1oF or 1oC? A) 1oF B) 1oC**

C) they are the same

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**Molecular Picture of a Gas**

Atoms and molecules are the basic units of matter We want to explain thermal Properties in terms of atoms and molecules. How many atoms?

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**Molecular Picture of a Gas**

We can specify the amount of a substance by giving its mass or by the number of molecules (or atoms) it has. If we know the mass of a molecule we can go from one description to the other A golf ball weighs 1.6 ounces. I have a 20 lb box of golf balls I have a box of 200 golf balls Totally equivalent

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**Molecular Picture of a Gas**

If a sample contains a single substance (element or compound) the number of particles in the sample is N = M/m. N equals the total mass of the sample (M) divided by the mass (m) of the atom (or molecule) The number density of particles is N/V where N is the total number of particles contained in a volume V.

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It is convenient to have a standard number to facilitate this going back and forth from the two descriptions. Since we deal with human size numbers (gms) this will involve a very large number of atoms One mole of a substance contains the same number of particles as there are atoms in 12 grams of 12C. The number of atoms in 12 grams of 12C is Avogadro’s number.

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**Why 12 gm of Carbon? u = 1g/(6x1023) =1.66x10-24g =1.66x10-27kg**

A carbon-12 atom by definition has a mass of exactly 12 atomic mass units (12 u or 12 amu). 12g = 12u NA u = 1g/(6x1023) =1.66x10-24g =1.66x10-27kg Problem This is the conversion factor between the atomic mass unit and kg (1 u = 1.661027 kg). NA and the mole are defined so that a 1 gram sample of a substance with an atomic mass of 1 u contains exactly NA particles. A mole of O2 has mass 32 gm., of water m=18 gm

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Example (text problem 13.37): Air at room temperature and atmospheric pressure has a mass density of 1.2 kg/m3. The average molecular mass of air is 29.0 u. How many air molecules are there in 1.0 cm3 of air? The total mass of air in the given volume is:

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Example continued:

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**Question Which contains more atoms, 5 mol. of helium**

(mass He =4amu) or 1 mol of neon (m Ne =20amu) A) Helium B) Neon C) both have same number of atoms

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**Question Which contains more atoms, 1 mol of helium**

or 1 mol of Steam (water) A) Helium B) water C) both have same number of atoms

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**Decrease the volume Increase the pressure**

Constant T: P ~1/V

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**Increase the number of molecules Increase the pressure**

Constant V,T: P ~ N

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**We also know that, as you drive, tire pressure increases with T**

Constant V,N: P ~ T

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**Absolute Temperature and the Ideal Gas Law**

Could incorporate personal response system questions from the College Physics by G/R/R 2E ARIS site (www.mhhe.com/grr), Instructor Resources: CPS by eInstruction, Chapter 13, Questions 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15. Constant P: V ~T

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**Absolute Temperature and the Ideal Gas Law**

Experiments done on dilute gases (a gas where interactions between molecules can be ignored) show that: Could incorporate personal response system questions from the College Physics by G/R/R 2E ARIS site (www.mhhe.com/grr), Instructor Resources: CPS by eInstruction, Chapter 13, Questions 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15. For constant pressure Charles’ Law For constant volume Gay-Lussac’s Law

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**For constant temperature**

Boyle’s Law For constant pressure and temperature Avogadro’s Law

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**What Temperature do we use?**

Could incorporate personal response system questions from the College Physics by G/R/R 2E ARIS site (www.mhhe.com/grr), Instructor Resources: CPS by eInstruction, Chapter 13, Questions 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15. There is a lowest possible T V→0

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Absolute Temperature There is a coldest possible temperature Absolute zero. All objects will transfer heat to an object at absolute 0. Experiment show (e.g. V→0 ) that the coldest possible T is oC. Kelvin scale measures T from Absolute 0 in units of 1oC TK=Tc+273o

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**The ideal gas law can also be written as (macroscopic form):**

Putting all of these statements together gives the ideal gas law (microscopic form): k = 1.381023 J/K is Boltzmann’s constant The ideal gas law can also be written as (macroscopic form): R = NAk = 8.31 J/K/mole is the universal gas constant and n is the number of moles.

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**Here, Vf = Vi/9, Pf = 20.0Pi, and Ti = 30 C = 303 K.**

Example (text problem 13.41): A cylinder in a car engine takes Vi = 4.50102 m3 of air into the chamber at 30 C and at atmospheric pressure. The piston then compresses the air to one-ninth of the original volume and to 20.0 times the original pressure. What is the new temperature of the air? Here, Vf = Vi/9, Pf = 20.0Pi, and Ti = 30 C = 303 K. The ideal gas law holds for each set of parameters (before compression and after compression).

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**The final temperature is**

Example continued: Take the ratio: The final temperature is The final temperature is 673 K = 400 C.

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**The ideal gas law can also be written as (macroscopic form):**

Putting all of these statements together gives the ideal gas law (microscopic form): k = 1.381023 J/K is Boltzmann’s constant The ideal gas law can also be written as (macroscopic form): R = NAk = 8.31 J/K/mole is the universal gas constant and n is the number of moles.

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**Question When the temperature of a quantity of gas is increased**

A) the pressure must increase. B) the volume must increase. C) the pressure and/or the volume must increase. D) none of the above

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Question A pot of water on the stove is heated from 25oC to 100oC. By what factor does the temperature in Kelvin change? A) T2 = 4T1 B) T2 = 1.25T1 C) T2 = 0.80T1 D) T2 = 0.20T1

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Question Inside your air-conditioned apartment, you blow up a balloon as large as possible and then take it outside on a hot summer day. The balloon is most likely to then A) shrink. B) remain the same size. C) expand and pop.

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Question The Kelvin temperature of an ideal gas is doubled and the volume is halved. How is the pressure affected? A) increases by a factor of 2 B) increases by a factor of 4 C) stays the same D) decreases by a factor of 2 E) decreases by a factor of 4

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**Kinetic Theory of the Ideal Gas**

An ideal gas is a dilute gas where the particles act as point particles with no interactions except for elastic collisions. Point particles can have only KE, no internal PE Add heat (energy) to gas, energy increases KE increases. But if we add heat, temperature also increases. T depends on KE Could incorporate personal response system questions from the College Physics by G/R/R 2E ARIS site (www.mhhe.com/grr), Instructor Resources: CPS by eInstruction, Chapter 13, Questions 16 and 18.

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**Kinetic Theory of Ideal Gas**

T~ KEav/molecule if T =absolute 0, molecules don’t move. T T T More total energy, but same T, same average KE

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**Temperature is related to average KE**

This is true even for liquids and solids

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**Pressure is caused by collisions**

Gas particles have random motions. Each time a particle collides with the walls of its container there is a force exerted on the wall. The force per unit area on the wall is equal to the pressure in the gas.

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**The pressure will depend on:**

The number of gas particles ~N Frequency of collisions with the walls ~ v Amount of momentum transferred during each collision ~ mv P~ Nmv2 ~N KEmol

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**The pressure in the gas is**

Where <Ktr> is the average translational kinetic energy of the gas particles; it depends on the temperature of the gas.

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**Typical air molecule is moving more than**

1,000 Miles/hr. Some move faster some slower

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**The average kinetic energy also depends on the rms speed of the gas**

Problem where the rms speed is

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**What is rms? root mean square**

v2 rms is the average of the square of the velocities. It is not the square of the average Average of squares rms

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**What is rms? root mean square**

vrms is the average of the square of the velocities. It is not the square of the average

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rms Example v1 = v2 = vav = 6 v12 = v22 = 64

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**The distribution of speeds in a gas is given by the Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution.**

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Example (text problem 13.60): What is the temperature of an ideal gas whose molecules have an average translational kinetic energy of 3.201020 J?

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**On the Kelvin scale T = 25 C = 298 K. Element Mass (kg) **

Example (text problem 13.70): What are the rms speeds of helium atoms, and nitrogen, hydrogen, and oxygen molecules at 25 C? On the Kelvin scale T = 25 C = 298 K. Element Mass (kg) rms speed (m/s) He 6.641027 1360 H2 3.321027 1930 N2 4.641026 515 O2 5.321026 482 In atomic mass units, the masses used are 4u for He, 2u for H2, 14u for N2, and 16u for O2.

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Question At a given temperature, a hydrogen molecule has a speed of 800 m/s. At the same temperature, an oxygen molecule has a speed of A) m/s. B) m/s. C) m/s. D) 100 m/s.

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**Question When will a real gas behave most like an ideal gas?**

A) at high temperatures and high pressures B) at low temperatures and high pressures C) at low temperatures and low pressures D) at high temperatures and low pressures

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Question The rms speed of a box of molecules which are moving at non uniform speeds is greater than the average speed. A) always B) sometimes C) never

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Thermal expansion Most objects including liquids and solids expand when their Temperature increases

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**An object’s length after its temperature has changed is**

is the coefficient of linear expansion where T = TT0 and L0 is the length of the object at a temperature T0.

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**Example (text problem 13.84): An iron bridge girder**

(Y = 2.01011 N/m2) is constrained between two rock faces whose spacing doesn’t change. At 20.0 C the girder is relaxed. How large a stress develops in the iron if the sun heats the girder to 40.0 C? = 12106 K1 (from Table 13.2) Using Hooke’s Law:

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**How does the area of an object change when its temperature changes?**

L0 L0+L The blue square has an area of L02. With a temperature change T each side of the square will have a length change of L = TL0.

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**The fractional change in area is:**

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**The fractional change in volume due to a temperature change is:**

For solids = 3

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Question A metal plate with a hole cut in it is heated. As the plate expands, A) the hole expands. B) the hole shrinks. C) the hole stays the same size.

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Question You can loosen the metal lid on a glass jar by running it under hot water. Given that the lid and the jar have roughly the same diameter, compare the expansion of the diameter of the lid to that of the jar. (asteel = 12 x 10-6 K-1, aglass = 3.25 x 10-6 K-1) A) DLlid = 3.7 DLjar B) DLlid = 0.27DLjar C) DLlid = 7.4 DLjar D) DLlid = 1.9 DLjar

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