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Give Me Liberty! An American History

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1 Give Me Liberty! An American History
Title Norton Media Library Give Me Liberty! An American History Eric Foner

2 Chapter 1 Norton Media Library Chapter 1 A New World Eric Foner

3 I. Columbian Exchange

4 II. The Expansion of Europe
Portugal and West Africa Caravelle, compass, and quadrant made travel along African coast possible for the Portuguese in the early fifteenth century The search for African gold drove the early explorers Portugal began colonizing Atlantic islands and established sugar plantations worked by slaves Slavery and Africa Slavery was already one form of labor in Africa before the Europeans came Europeans traded textiles and guns for African slaves, which greatly disrupted African society By the time Vasco da Gama sailed to India in 1498, Portugal had established a vast trading empire

5 II. The Expansion of Europe (con’t)
The Voyages of Columbus Christopher Columbus, an Italian, received financial support from King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain Columbus landed on Hispaniola in 1492 and colonization began the next year Amerigo Vespucci sailed along the coast of South America between 1498 and 1502, and the New World came to be called America based on Vespucci’s name

6 III. Peoples of the Americas
The Settling of America “Indians” settled the New World between 15,000 and 40,000 years ago, before the glaciers melted and submerged the land bridge between Asia and North America Conquering the Americas The native populations were significantly depleted through wars, enslavement, and diseases The Spanish conquistadores Hernán Cortés and Francisco Pizarro conquered the Aztec and Inca empires respectively

7 IV. The Spanish Empire Spain in America
Spain established a more stable government modeled after Spanish home rule Power flowed from the King to Council of the Indies to Viceroys to local officials Gold and silver mines were the primary economies in Spanish America Mines were worked by Indians Many Spaniards came to the New World for easier social mobility Spanish America evolved into a hybrid culture

8 IV. The Spanish Empire (con’t)
Justifications for Conquest To justify their claims to land that belonged to someone else, the Spanish relied on: cultural superiority violence missionaries the Pope National glory and religious mission went hand in hand, with the primary aim of the Spaniards to transform Indians into obedient, Catholic subjects of the Crown

9 IV. The Spanish Empire (con’t)
Spain and the Indians Bartolomé de Las Casas wrote about the injustices of Spanish rule toward the Indians He believed that “the entire human race is one,” but supported African slavery His writings encouraged the 1542 New Laws, which forbade the enslavement of Indians Black Legend was an image put forth, in part, by Las Casas that Spain was an uniquely brutal and exploitive colonizer

10 IV. The Spanish Empire (con’t)
Spain in North America Spanish explorers migrated north in search of gold Florida was the first region within the present United States to be colonized by the Spanish Juan de Oñate led settlers into present-day New Mexico Oñate’s methods toward the native Acoma were brutal

11 V. The First North Americans
Native American Societies Indians in North America did not resemble the empires of the Aztec or Inca civilizations Indians were very diverse and lived a variety of ways, some settling villages and some wandering as hunters By the fifteenth century some Indian tribes united into leagues or confederations in an effort to bring peace to local regions

12 V. The First North Americans (con’t)
Religion, Land, and Gender Despite some similarities between Indian and European religious beliefs, Europeans still sought to “Christianize” the Indians The idea of private property was foreign to Indians Wealth and material goods were not sought after by Indians as compared to Europeans Many Indian societies were matrilineal Europeans and the Indians Europeans felt that Indians lacked genuine religion Europeans claimed that Indians did not “use” the land and thus had no claim to it Europeans viewed Indian men as weak and Indian women as mistreated

13 V. The First North Americans (con’t)
Indians and Freedom Europeans concluded that the notion of “freedom” was alien to Indian societies Indians were barbaric to the Europeans because they were too free European understanding of freedom was based upon ideas of personal independence and the ownership of private property, foreign ideas to Indians

14 VI. England and the New World
Unifying the English Nation England’s stability in the sixteenth century was undermined by religious conflicts England’s methods to subdue Ireland in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries established patterns that would be repeated in America

15 VI. England and the New World (con’t)
England and New World Colonization The English crown issued charters for individuals to colonize America at their own expense, but they failed National glory, profit, and a missionary zeal motivated the English crown to settle America A Discourse Concerning Western Planting argued that settlement would strike a blow at England’s enemy: Spain It was also argued that trade, not mineral wealth, would be the basis of England’s empire

16 VI. England and the New World (con’t)
The Social Crisis A worsening economy and the enclosure movement led to an increase of the poor and a social crisis Unruly poor were encouraged to leave England for the New World Masterless Men The English increasingly viewed America as a land where a man could control his own labor and thus gain independence, particularly through ownership of land

17 VII. The Freeborn Englishman
Christian Freedom To embrace Christ was believed to provide a freedom from sin “Christian liberty” had no connection to later ideas of religious tolerance

18 VII. The Freeborn Englishman (con’t)
Freedom and Authority Obedience to law was another definition of freedom—law was liberty’s “salvation” Under English law, a woman held very few rights and was submissive to her husband Freedom was a function of social class and as such a well-ordered society depended on obedience Liberty was often understood as formal privileges enjoyed by only a few

19 VII. The Freeborn Englishman (con’t)
The Rights of Englishmen The Magna Carta was signed by King John in 1215 It identified a series of liberties, which barons found to be the most beneficial The Magna Carta embodied the idea of English freedom habeas corpus the right to face one’s accuser trial by jury English Civil War of the 1640s illuminated debates about liberty and what it meant to be a “freeborn Englishman”

20 VII. The Freeborn Englishman (con’t)
England’s Debate over Freedom The Levellers called for an even greater expansion of liberty, moving away from a definition based on social class Diggers were another political group attempting to give freedom an economic underpinning After the Civil War, there emerged a more general definition of freedom grounded in the common rights of all individuals within the English realm a belief in freedom as the common heritage of all Englishmen a belief that England was the world’s guardian of liberty

21 The Old World on the Eve of American Colonization, ca. 1500 • pg. 8

22 Voyages of Discovery • pg. 13

23 Spanish Conquests and Explorations in the New World, 1500–1600
Spanish Conquests and Explorations in the New World, 1500–1600 • pg. 22 Spanish Conquests and Explorations in the New World, 1500–1600

24 Indians of North America, ca. 1500 • pg. 26

25 fig01_06.jpg Page 17: An illustration from the Huexotzinco Codex (1531) depicts Mexicans providing products and services as taxes to the Spanish conquerors. The banner of the Virgin Mary and baby Jesus reflects the early spread of Christianity. The people of Huexotzinco, a town near Mexico City, had aided Hernán Cortés in his conquest of the Aztec empire. The codex was part of a successful lawsuit, endorsed by Cortés, in which the Indians challenged excessive taxation by colonial officials. Courtesy of the Library of Congress, Huexotzinco Codex, Painting V, Manuscript 1531

26 fig01_09.jpg Page 16: A 1671 engraving of Mexico City, built on the site of the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlán. Historical Picture Archive/CORBIS

27 fig01_10.jpg Page 18: A benign view of Spanish colonization. This engraving from a 1621 book depicts Spanish missionaries bringing Christianity to New World natives while priests do construction work. A fortified colonial town is visible in the background. Rare Books Division, The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox, and Tilden Foundations

28 fig01_12.jpg Page 20: Spanish conquistadores murdering Indians at Cuzco, in modern-day Peru. The Dutch-born engraver Theodor de Bry and his sons illustrated ten volumes about New World exploration published between 1590 and A Protestant, de Bry created vivid images that helped to spread the Black Legend of Spain as a uniquely cruel colonizer. Library of Congress

29 fig01_13.jpg Page 21: Another engraving by Theodor de Bry depicts Incans bringing gold to the conquistador Francisco Pizarro to ransom their king, whom Pizarro had captured and later killed. Library of Congress

30 fig01_14.jpg Page 23: Acoma, the "sky city," as it appeared in 1904.
Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, Edward S. Curtis Collection, LC-USZ

31 fig01_16.jpg Page 25: Serpent Mound, a quarter-mile-long burial mound in modern-day Ohio, built by Indians in the shape of a snake. Although the exact year of construction is unknown, recent studies suggest that it dates from between 1050 and 1100. Richard A. Cooke/CORBIS

32 fig01_18.jpg Page 28: Indian women planting crops while men break the sod. An engraving by Theodor de Bry, based on a painting by Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues. Morgues was part of an expedition of French Huguenots to Florida in 1564; he escaped when the Spanish destroyed the outpost in the following year. Library of Congress, LC-DIG-PPMSCA-02937

33 fig01_22.jpg Page 37: The Court of Common Pleas. Trial by jury was a central element in the definition of “English liberty.” This watercolor appeared in a three-volume series, The Microcosm of London (1808–1810). Historical Picture Archive/Corbis

34 Go to website

35 Give Me Liberty! An American History
End chap. 1 W. W. Norton & Company Independent and Employee-Owned This concludes the Norton Media Library Slide Set for Chapter 1 Give Me Liberty! An American History by Eric Foner

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