2Focus ActivityWrite down the first words or phrases that come to mind when you see the following terms:EmpireMarco PoloGenghis Khan
3Who are the Mongols? Homeland – Rugged steppe region north of China NomadsDepended upon animals (especially the horse)Constantly searching for water and vegetationPrecarious (fragile, dangerous) lifestyleAt the mercy of natureRelied upon trade with other civilizations in times of needMotive for empire?
4Genghis KhanEspecially fierce, powerful Mongol leader who lived from about 1162 to 1227Consolidates dispersed Mongolian tribesCreates a Mongolian EmpireName means “Universal Ruler”Encouraged skills of battle and the mindset of a warriorAdvantage of cavalry over foot soldiersWarfare was a way for individuals to gain honor, power and riches in Mongolian society
5Early Mongolian Empire Capital = KarakorumEarly 1200s Genghis Khan captures Beijing, central Asia and most of PersiaGenghis’ legacy:UnityReligious toleranceWritten language for the MongoliansMongolian legal code
6Kublai Khan Grandson of Genghis, known as the “Great Khan” Conquers the rest of China, Tibet and Southeast Asia [tried but failed to conquer Japan]Establishes the Yuan Dynasty in northern China in 1271 – conquer Southern Sung in 1279Adopts many Chinese beliefs, customs and institutions
7Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) Benefits of the Yuan Dynasty to the Chinese: Extended the Grand CanalInstituted efficient governmentOver 10,000 courier stationsSupported the artsIncreased trade with India and PersiaContact with EuropeDisadvantages of the Yuan Dynasty:Had to pay tributesLanguage barrierSecond-class citizens
8Marco Polo Italian merchant and explorer Very impressed with the Mongol society“If you put together all the Christians in the world, with their Emperors and their Kings, the whole of these Christians, …would not have such power, or be able to do so much as this Kublai, who is Lord of all the Tartars in the world.”
9Decline of the Yuan Reasons: Huang He (Yellow) River floods causing destruction and famineString of weak successorsChinese unrest
10Mongolian Empire: Review Given what you know about Mongolian culture, try to explain the meaning of this Mongolian proverb:"Better the bone be broken than one’s reputation.“In what ways did the Mongolians create an “empire”?What aspects of Mongolian lifestyle and culture contributed to the creation of an empire?
11Mongolian Empire: Review Read the following passage from Marco Polo’s accounts of his travels. What is he saying about Kublai Khan? What is he saying about his empire?“Whenever the Great Khan sits at the table on any great court occasion, his table is elevated a good deal above the others…Outside the hall are more than 40,000 people; for there is always a great crowd of folk bringing presents to the Lord, or coming from foreign countries with curiosities…On the buffet are placed all the Lord's drinking vessels, among which are certain pitchers of the finest gold, which are big enough to hold drink for eight or ten persons.”