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Geography, Migration and Language

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Presentation on theme: "Geography, Migration and Language"— Presentation transcript:

1 Geography, Migration and Language
Early African Empires Geography, Migration and Language


3 Geography ……. Savanna: Rain Forest: Nile River Sahara Desert
Niger River Lake Victoria Congo River Kalahari Desert

4 Early People = Nomads

5 What would cause a family to move?
Have you ever moved? What would cause a family to move?

6 Migration Permanent move from one country or region to another

7 What factors would cause people to migrate?

8 Migration Factors: Push-Pull
Push Examples Migration Factors Pull Examples Climate changes, exhausted resources, earthquakes, volcanoes, drought/famine Environmental Abundant land, new resources, good climate Unemployment, slavery Economic Employment Opportunities Religious, ethnic, or political persecution, war Political Political and/or religious freedom

9 Bantu Migration

10 Starting in 3000 BC/BCE a group of people began migrating southward in Africa
These were the Bantu speaking people (Bantu means “the people”)

11 These people were farmers/nomads who also had skills in ironworking
Overtime develop agricultural (slash/burn, growing crops, herding)


13 Increased Population Density Lack of Sufficient Land
Why they moved…… Increase Food Production Increased Population Density Lack of Sufficient Land

14 Meet with other groups over time and cultures mixed
Major Effect Meet with other groups over time and cultures mixed

15 Swahili was one of the main languages as is Bantu languages and Arabic

16 Early people clans based on lineage
Some clans had matrilineal descent. Others patrilineal descent.



19 African Kingdoms Trade and Gold

20 KUSH / CUSH Located on the Southern part of the Nile River in present day Sudan Kush merchants traded iron, leopard skins & ebony for goods from Med & Red Sea regions

21 Evidence of Egyptian influence: pyramids, tombs of kings contained jewelry, etc; boats & eating utensils

22 Images from Kush

23 AXUM Located on the Red Sea Present Day Ethiopia
Traded with Egypt, Greece, Rome, Persia & India; Exchanged ivory for goods

24 4th century Axumite stele

25 Through trade Axum absorbed many elements of Roman culture, including the adoption of CHRISTIANITY

26 KILWA Located on East African Coast
Independent City-State - not part of kingdom Monopolized (controlled) gold trade with interior

27 Model drawing of Palace of Kilwa - Palace was destroyed by the Portuguese in early 16th century

28 Swahili Culture: Islamic & African culture blended Swahili language
Beautiful mosques Hail Mary in Swahili

29 Ruins of the Great Mosque at Kilwa

30 Great Zimbabwe Located between Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers
Mined rich deposits of copper & gold Controlled trade routes between gold mines and the sea Karanga conquered Kilwa

31 GREAT ZIMBABWE: Great stonewall fortress that served as a political and religious center - chief held court here


33 The Niger is one of the great rivers of Africa, stretching over 2,500 miles (4,000 km) in a great arc that extends northward from Guinea to Mali before turning back toward the south and making its way to empty into the Gulf of Guinea.

34 All 3 kingdoms controlled some aspects of the famous Salt for Gold trade of Western Africa around the northern peak of the Niger River

35 GHANA Gov’t based on Kings called “Ghanas” Capital at Koumbi Saleh

36 Caravans traded Ghana’s GOLD for Sahara’s SALT with Muslims traders

37 "The King adorns himself like a woman wearing necklaces round his neck and bracelets on his forearms and he puts on a high cap decorated with gold and wrapped in a turban of fine cotton.”

38 “He holds an audience in a domed pavilion around which stand ten horses covered with gold-embroidered materials …and on his right, are the sons of the vassal kings of his country, wearing splendid garments and their hair plaited with gold.” .

39 At the door of the pavilion are dogs of excellent pedigree
At the door of the pavilion are dogs of excellent pedigree. Round their necks they wear collars of gold and silver, studded with a number of balls of the same metals." 10th century geographer Al-Bakri, quoted in Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West African History

40 Ghana Culture Practiced tradition religions
Muslim traders introduced Islam to kingdom Calvary & iron weapons enable Ghana to dominate neighbors

41 Mali MALI Mali means “where the KING resides””

42 SUNDIATA: Early king - oral tradition tells his story
overcame great obstacles to oust an “evil” king...

43 MANSA MUSA: Greatest King of Mali - Hajj to Mecca; Introduced Islamic culture to Mali

44 Mansa Musa’s haj “put Mali on the Map”

45 Economy: Gold/Salt trade & agricultural production
Taghaza, the salt gulf, was now part of the empire of Mali.

46 Mali Culture Rulers became Muslim prosperous kingdom
Timbuktu became center of learning (university) &Islamic cultural center contained Muslim art, mosques Evidence of trip to the Americas?

47 SONGHAI SUNNI ALI: conquered cities of Mali
expanded empire to include most of W. African savanna- Songhai controlled both ends of the Salt-Gold Trade

48 ASKIA MUHAMMAD: Empire reached height - golden age of the western Sudan
Skilled traders, fishers, & farmers

49 Went on hajj to Mecca Divided Songhai into 5 provinces, each with gov’t, tax collector, court & trade inspector Introduced laws based on teaching of the Koran warships patrolled Niger

50 The African Slave Trade emerges
“Here there is a certain place where slaves are sold, especially on those days when the merchants are assembled. And a young slave of fifteen years of age is sold for six ducats, and children are also sold. The king of this region has a certain private palace where he maintains a great number of concubines and slaves." Leo Africanus, Moroccan writer/traveller

51 Weakening of Songhai Moroccan kingdom to the north launched continuous attacks Moroccans wanted to control the gold source destroyed the Empire economic decline internal fragmentation

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