30 Great Zimbabwe Located between Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers Mined rich deposits of copper & goldControlled trade routes between gold mines and the seaKaranga conquered Kilwa
31 GREAT ZIMBABWE: Great stonewall fortress that served as a political and religious center - chief held court here
32 WEST AFRICAN SALT-GOLD KINGDOMS GHANAMALISONGHAI
33 The Niger is one of the great rivers of Africa, stretching over 2,500 miles (4,000 km) in a great arc that extends northward from Guinea to Mali before turning back toward the south and making its way to empty into the Gulf of Guinea.
34 All 3 kingdoms controlled some aspects of the famous Salt for Gold trade of Western Africa around the northern peak of the Niger River
35 GHANAGov’t based on Kings called “Ghanas”Capital at Koumbi Saleh
36 Caravans traded Ghana’s GOLD for Sahara’s SALT with Muslims traders
37 "The King adorns himself like a woman wearing necklaces round his neck and bracelets on his forearms and he puts on a high cap decorated with gold and wrapped in a turban of fine cotton.”
38 “He holds an audience in a domed pavilion around which stand ten horses covered with gold-embroidered materials …and on his right, are the sons of the vassal kings of his country, wearing splendid garments and their hair plaited with gold.” .
39 At the door of the pavilion are dogs of excellent pedigree At the door of the pavilion are dogs of excellent pedigree. Round their necks they wear collars of gold and silver, studded with a number of balls of the same metals." 10th century geographer Al-Bakri, quoted in Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West African History
40 Ghana Culture Practiced tradition religions Muslim traders introduced Islam to kingdomCalvary & iron weapons enable Ghana to dominate neighbors
45 Economy: Gold/Salt trade & agricultural production Taghaza, the salt gulf, was now part of the empire of Mali.
46 Mali Culture Rulers became Muslim prosperous kingdom Timbuktu became center of learning (university) &Islamic cultural center contained Muslim art, mosquesEvidence of trip to the Americas?
47 SONGHAI SUNNI ALI: conquered cities of Mali expanded empire to include most of W. African savanna-Songhai controlled both ends of the Salt-Gold Trade
48 ASKIA MUHAMMAD: Empire reached height - golden age of the western Sudan Skilled traders, fishers, & farmers
49 Went on hajj to MeccaDivided Songhai into 5 provinces, each with gov’t, tax collector, court & trade inspectorIntroduced laws based on teaching of the Koranwarships patrolled Niger
50 The African Slave Trade emerges “Here there is a certain place where slaves are sold, especially on those days when the merchants are assembled. And a young slave of fifteen years of age is sold for six ducats, and children are also sold. The king of this region has a certain private palace where he maintains a great number of concubines and slaves." Leo Africanus, Moroccan writer/traveller
51 Weakening of SonghaiMoroccan kingdom to the north launched continuous attacksMoroccans wanted to control the gold sourcedestroyed the Empireeconomic declineinternal fragmentation