Presentation on theme: "Geography, Migration and Language. Congo River Nile River Sahara Desert Niger River Lake Victori a Kalaha ri Desert Savanna: Rain Forest: Geography."— Presentation transcript:
Geography, Migration and Language
Congo River Nile River Sahara Desert Niger River Lake Victori a Kalaha ri Desert Savanna: Rain Forest: Geography …….
Early People = Nomads
Have you ever moved?
Migration Permanent move from one country or region to another
What factors would cause people to migrate?
Migration Factors: Push-Pull Push Examples Migration Factors Pull Examples Climate changes, exhausted resources, earthquakes, volcanoes, drought/famine Environmental Abundant land, new resources, good climate Unemployment, slavery Economic Employment Opportunities Religious, ethnic, or political persecution, war Political Political and/or religious freedom
Starting in 3000 BC/BCE a group of people began migrating southward in Africa These were the Bantu speaking people (Bantu means the people)
These people were farmers/nomads who also had skills in ironworking Overtime develop agricultural (slash/burn, growing crops, herding)
Why they moved…… Increase Food Production Increased Population Density Lack of Sufficient Land
Major Effect Meet with other groups over time and cultures mixed
Swahili was one of the main languages as is Bantu languages and Arabic
Early people clans based on lineage Some clans had matrilineal descent. Others patrilineal descent.
Trade and Gold
KUSH / CUSH Located on the Southern part of the Nile River in present day Sudan Kush merchants traded iron, leopard skins & ebony for goods from Med. & Red Sea regions
Evidence of Egyptian influence: pyramids, tombs of kings contained jewelry, etc; boats & eating utensils
Images from Kush
AXUM Located on the Red Sea Present Day Ethiopia Traded with Egypt, Greece, Rome, Persia & India; Exchanged ivory for goods
4 th century Axumite stele
Through trade Axum absorbed many elements of Roman culture, including the adoption of CHRISTIANITY
KILWA Located on East African Coast Independent City-State - not part of kingdom Monopolized (controlled) gold trade with interior
Model drawing of Palace of Kilwa - Palace was destroyed by the Portuguese in early 16th century
Swahili Culture: Islamic & African culture blended Swahili language Beautiful mosques Hail Mary in Swahili
Ruins of the Great Mosque at Kilwa
Great Zimbabwe Located between Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers Mined rich deposits of copper & gold Controlled trade routes between gold mines and the sea Karanga conquered Kilwa
GREAT ZIMBABWE: Great stonewall fortress that served as a political and religious center - chief held court here
WEST AFRICAN SALT-GOLD KINGDOMS GHANA MALI SONGHAI
The Niger is one of the great rivers of Africa, stretching over 2,500 miles (4,000 km) in a great arc that extends northward from Guinea to Mali before turning back toward the south and making its way to empty into the Gulf of Guinea.
All 3 kingdoms controlled some aspects of the famous Salt for Gold trade of Western Africa around the northern peak of the Niger River
GHANA Govt based on Kings calledGhanas Capital at Koumbi Saleh
Caravans traded Ghanas GOLD for Saharas SALT with Muslims traders
" The King adorns himself like a woman wearing necklaces round his neck and bracelets on his forearms and he puts on a high cap decorated with gold and wrapped in a turban of fine cotton.
He holds an audience in a domed pavilion around which stand ten horses covered with gold- embroidered materials …and on his right, are the sons of the vassal kings of his country, wearing splendid garments and their hair plaited with gold..
At the door of the pavilion are dogs of excellent pedigree. Round their necks they wear collars of gold and silver, studded with a number of balls of the same metals." 10th century geographer Al-Bakri, quoted in Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West African History
Ghana Culture Practiced tradition religions Muslim traders introduced Islam to kingdom Calvary & iron weapons enable Ghana to dominate neighbors
MALI Mali means where the KING resides Mali
SUNDIATA: Early king - oral tradition tells his story overcame great obstacles to oust an evil king...
MANSA MUSA: Greatest King of Mali - Hajj to Mecca; Introduced Islamic culture to Mali
Mansa Musas haj put Mali on the Map Mansa Musa
Economy: Gold/Salt trade & agricultural production Taghaza, the salt gulf, was now part of the empire of Mali.
Mali Culture Rulers became Muslim prosperous kingdom Timbuktu became center of learning (university) &Islamic cultural center - contained Muslim art, mosques Evidence of trip to the Americas?
SONGHAI SUNNI ALI: conquered cities of Mali expanded empire to include most of W. African savanna- Songhai controlled both ends of the Salt-Gold Trade
ASKIA MUHAMMAD: Empire reached height - golden age of the western Sudan Skilled traders, fishers, & farmers
Went on hajj to Mecca Divided Songhai into 5 provinces, each with govt, tax collector, court & trade inspector Introduced laws based on teaching of the Koran warships patrolled Niger
The African Slave Trade emerges Here there is a certain place where slaves are sold, especially on those days when the merchants are assembled. And a young slave of fifteen years of age is sold for six ducats, and children are also sold. The king of this region has a certain private palace where he maintains a great number of concubines and slaves." Leo Africanus, Moroccan writer/traveller
Weakening of Songhai Moroccan kingdom to the north launched continuous attacks Moroccans wanted to control the gold source destroyed the Empire economic decline internal fragmentation