Presentation on theme: "Georgia and the American Experience"— Presentation transcript:
1Georgia and the American Experience Chapter 7:The Antebellum Era,Study PresentationMr. Smith’s Classes
2Georgia and the American Experience Section 1: Manifest DestinySection 2: Deepening DivisionsSection 3: Slavery as a Way of LifeSection 4: Antebellum GeorgiaSection 5: The Election of 1860
3Section 1: Manifest Destiny Essential QuestionHow did Americans apply the concept of manifest destiny during the Antebellum period?
4Section 1: Manifest Destiny What words do I need to know?Manifest Destinyannexskirmish
5Manifest DestinyA Northern journalist (1845) wrote that the manifest destiny of the U.S. was “to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free descendants of our yearly multiplying millions”The country’s leaders steadily increased territory and fought to protect its citizens across the continent
6The Nation GrowsTexas won independence from Mexico in 1836; annexed as the 28th state in 1845The U.S. declared war on Mexico to secure Rio Grande as the Mexican/U.S. borderTreaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) gave the U.S. the territory encompassing California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, most of New Mexico, and parts of Wyoming and Colorado.Gadsden Purchase (1853) bought the southern part of New Mexico
8Oregon Territory and Western Migration Area west of the Rocky Mountains and north of CaliforniaIn 1818 treaty, the U.S. and Great Britain set boundary between the U.S. and Canada at the 49th parallelThe Oregon and Santa Fe trails were the favored routes west by settlersBetween 1848 and 1850, the population of California increased tenfold; most of these settlers were seeking gold
9The Mexican War was a training ground for American soldiers who would fight each other in the Civil War.
11The Donner Party met disaster on the westward trail The Donner Party met disaster on the westward trail. Trapped by deep snow in the Sierra Nevada mountains, 42 0f 87 members of the party eventually died. Some survivors resorted to cannibalism in order to survive.
12Section 2: Deepening Divisions ESSENTIAL QUESTIONHow did the North and South differ before the Civil War?
13Section 2: Deepening Divisions What words do I need to know?states’ rightsMissouri CompromisesectionalismCompromise of 1850Kansas-Nebraska Act
14States’ RightsStates’ rights: Belief that the state’s interests take precedence over interests of national governmentNorthern states believed that all states should abide by laws made by the national governmentSouthern states believed that states had right to govern themselves and decide what would be best for their own situation
15Differences: North and South Class Structure: North generally based on wealth; South based on wealth and being “born into the right family”Slavery: North wanted it abolished; South supported itSouthern planter system consisted of large and small categories; the wealthiest had the most land and the most slavesEconomy: Northern based on mining, industry, banks, stores, and railroads; Southern based on agriculture, including cotton, rice, and indigoSoutherners resented tariffs, which raised import prices; the South imported more than the NorthSouth dependent on slave labor
16Many thousands of Africans died during the voyage from freedom in Africa to bondage in America.
18Freed Blacks and Slaves 500,000 freed blacks; only 6 percent lived in South (mostly Virginia and Maryland)By 1860, 11.5 percent of nation’s 4 million slaves lived in Georgia3,500 freed blacks lived in Georgia by 1860Slaves in the lower South cultivated “King Cotton,” which accounted for 50% of America’s exports
19The Abolitionists Led the movement to do away with slavery Many northern whites, some southernand free blacks were involvedMade speeches, wrote books and articles, and offered their homes as safe houses for runaway slavesUncle Tom’s Cabin (1852), by Harriet Beecher Stowe, portrayed slavery’s evils; the book sold more than 1 million copiesNorth Star and The Liberator were anti-slavery newspapersSouth believed the Constitution protected their right to own slaves
23The Missouri Compromise Approved in 1820; Maine entered the Union as a free state, and Missouri entered as a slave state11 states allowed slavery and 11 states did notProhibited slavery north of 36°20' latitude (the southern border of Missouri), and included Louisiana Territory lands west of MissouriTemporarily solved slavery controversy between the states
25The Compromise of 1850 California would enter Union as a free state New Mexico territory would not become part of Texas or a guaranteed slave stateThe District of Columbia would no longer trade slaves, but slave owners there could keep their slavesRunaway slaves could be returned to their owners in slave statesUtah and New Mexico territories could decide if they wanted to allow slaves or not
26The Kansas-Nebraska Act Created the territories of Kansas and NebraskaThose territories had right of popular sovereigntyPopular sovereignty: When a territory asked for statehood, the people could vote on slaveryFreesoilers in those territories fought against Abolitionists and proslavery supporters
27The Dred Scott Decision Supreme Court ruling in 1857A slave filed suit after he lived in free states with his owner but was returned to slave stateCourt ruled that slaves were not citizens and could not file lawsuitsCourt also ruled that Congress could not stop slavery in the territoriesDecision further separated the North and South
28Chief JusticeRoger TaneyDred ScottAt the time the Constitution was adopted, the Chief Justice wrote, blacks had been "regarded as beings of an inferior order" with "no rights which the white man was bound to respect."
29Section 3: Slavery as a Way of Life ESSENTIAL QUESTIONWhat was life like for Georgia slaves during the Antebellum period?
30Section 3: Slavery as a Way of Life What words do I need to know?driverslave codearsenalUnderground Railroadoverseer
34Cotton bound for New York being loaded in Savannah.
35Hard work, Simple living Slaves worked long hours in swampy rice fields or tobacco and cotton fieldsWork began at sunup and continued until sundown; overseers punished slaves who did not harvest enoughDrivers, older slaves trusted by the plantation owner, also supervised the field handsSlave children, as young as five, also worked hard on the plantations and farmsSlave cabins were small, very simply furnished, and crudely built; foods were basic
37Swing Low, Sweet Chariot Music was very important to slaves. Often the lyrics had a hidden meaning:Swing Low, Sweet ChariotI looked over Jordan (Ohio River) and what did I see?Coming for to carry me home!A band of angels (abolitionists) coming after me.Coming for to carry me home! (to freedom)“Call and response” singing maximized efficiency by keeping workers’ labor at the same pace and allowed the overseer to keep track of the day’s progress.rhythmhttp://www.history.org/history/teaching/enewsletter/february03/worksongs.cfm
38Slave Family Life Slave families often became separated Owners encouraged marriage; slave children became property of the mother’s ownerReligion was important; black preachers spoke of freedom and justiceSpiritual songs encouraged slaves throughout their livesEducation was nearly nonexistent, although minimal reading and writing skills were permitted by some slave owners
39The Br’er Rabbit stories were a source of hope and encouragement for slaves.
41Slave Rebellions 1800 – Gabriel Prosser, Richmond, VA (1,000) 1822 – Denmark Versey, Charleston, SC (5,000)Nat Turner led a rebellion in Virginia; at least 57 and perhaps as many as 85 whites died; Turner was hangedNat Turner’s Rebellion and other unsuccessful rebellions prompted strict laws across the South designed to curtail slave movements, meetings, and efforts to learn to read and writeThese laws applied to both slaves and freed blacks
43Slave Codes Took away nearly all rights of slaves Slaves could not carry weapons, make any contact with white peoplePeople who tried to teach people of color were punished; slaves could not work any job involving reading and writingSlaves had little time to talk together
44John BrownWhite abolitionist led a raid on federal arsenal (arms storehouse) at Harper’s Ferry, VirginiaBrown wanted ammunition to lead a rebellion to free the South’s slavesHe was captured and hanged for treasonThe Brown raid added to fear and distrust, especially in the South; to many Northerners, Brown became a hero
46The Underground Railroad Network of roads, houses, river crossings, boats, wagons, woods, and streams operated by blacks and whitesProvided a trail of flight for runaway slaves seeking freedom in Canada or the Northern statesSafe stops along the way called stationsFormer slave Harriet Tubman personally helped more than 300 slaves escape to freedom
47Little DipperThe North Star (Polaris) pointed the way to freedom for runaway slaves.Big Dipper
49Section 4: Antebellum Georgia ESSENTIAL QUESTIONWhat was Georgia like before the Civil War?
50Section 4: Antebellum Georgia What words do I need to know?Know-Nothing PartyGreat Revival MovementMilledgeville
51Georgia’s Pre-War Economy 68,000 farms by 1860; cotton was chief crop500 plantations (500 acres or more); most farms were less than 100 acres60 percent of Georgians owned no slaves; only 236 had 100 or more slavesHalf of Georgia’s total wealth was in slaves ($400 million)1,890 factories in Georgia by 1860; about $11 million in value
52Education Most Georgians had little education 20 percent of Georgians were illiterate in 1850$100,000 allotted in 1858 to begin free schools; the outbreak of the Civil War delayed these plansGeorgia’s first law school founded in 1859 (Athens)Slaves were not given educational opportunities
53In this house, located in Savannah’s Historic District, Jane Devereaux taught slave children to read and write for 32 years!
54ReligionGeorgians involved in the Great Revival Movement of the early 1800sCamp meetings popular, especially among MethodistsBy 1860, Georgia second only to Virginia in the South in number of churchesMethodists and Baptists most common denominations
56Antebellum Georgia Politics Democrats and Whigs were two major political partiesDemocrats supported states’ rights; took strong stand for slaveryWhigs mainly from upper social classes; favored moderate protective tariff and federal help for the SouthMost governors were Whigs; most legislators were Democrats
57Know-Nothing PartyLeading Georgians formed two new political parties; one party favored the Compromise of 1850 while the other did notA secret party, the Know-Nothing party, did not want immigrants to become citizens or anyone not born in the United States to hold political officeMembers answered all questions, “I don’t know” By 1856, Democrats were dominant party; Dem. Joseph E. Brown, elected governor in 1856, served before, during, and after the Civil War
58Section 5: The Election of 1860 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONWhat steps led to Georgia’s secession from the Union in 1861?
59Section 5: The Election of 1860 What words do I need to know?Republican PartysecessionplatformordinanceConfederate States of America
60The Republican Party Republican Party formed in 1854 in free states Antislavery Whigs and Democrats joinedNominated Abraham Lincoln of Illinois as their candidate in 1860Southern and Northern Democrats split over slavery issues and nominated separate candidatesSoutherners angrily viewed the plans of the Republicans as non-beneficial to the South
64Georgia and Lincoln’s Election Georgians were, for the most part, for the Union; however, they were strongly for states’ rightsDespite lawmakers’ strong debates for and against secession, a Secession convention began in January 1861 in Milledgeville, the capitalA secession ordinance (bill) passedThe Southern states which seceded met in Montgomery, Alabama in February, 1861 and formed the Confederate States of America; Jefferson Davis was selected to be President
66Georgians in Leadership Robert Toombs named Secretary of State of the Confederate States of American (CSA)Alexander H. Stephens named Vice-PresidentGovernor Joseph E. Brown favored secession and used his terms as governor to prepare Georgia for war