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Georgia and the American Experience

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1 Georgia and the American Experience
Chapter 7: The Antebellum Era, Study Presentation Mr. Smith’s Classes

2 Georgia and the American Experience
Section 1: Manifest Destiny Section 2: Deepening Divisions Section 3: Slavery as a Way of Life Section 4: Antebellum Georgia Section 5: The Election of 1860

3 Section 1: Manifest Destiny
Essential Question How did Americans apply the concept of manifest destiny during the Antebellum period?

4 Section 1: Manifest Destiny
What words do I need to know? Manifest Destiny annex skirmish

5 Manifest Destiny A Northern journalist (1845) wrote that the manifest destiny of the U.S. was “to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free descendants of our yearly multiplying millions” The country’s leaders steadily increased territory and fought to protect its citizens across the continent

6 The Nation Grows Texas won independence from Mexico in 1836; annexed as the 28th state in 1845 The U.S. declared war on Mexico to secure Rio Grande as the Mexican/U.S. border Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) gave the U.S. the territory encompassing California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, most of New Mexico, and parts of Wyoming and Colorado. Gadsden Purchase (1853) bought the southern part of New Mexico


8 Oregon Territory and Western Migration
Area west of the Rocky Mountains and north of California In 1818 treaty, the U.S. and Great Britain set boundary between the U.S. and Canada at the 49th parallel The Oregon and Santa Fe trails were the favored routes west by settlers Between 1848 and 1850, the population of California increased tenfold; most of these settlers were seeking gold

9 The Mexican War was a training ground for American soldiers who would fight each other in the Civil War.


11 The Donner Party met disaster on the westward trail
The Donner Party met disaster on the westward trail. Trapped by deep snow in the Sierra Nevada mountains, 42 0f 87 members of the party eventually died. Some survivors resorted to cannibalism in order to survive.

12 Section 2: Deepening Divisions
ESSENTIAL QUESTION How did the North and South differ before the Civil War?

13 Section 2: Deepening Divisions
What words do I need to know? states’ rights Missouri Compromise sectionalism Compromise of 1850 Kansas-Nebraska Act

14 States’ Rights States’ rights: Belief that the state’s interests take precedence over interests of national government Northern states believed that all states should abide by laws made by the national government Southern states believed that states had right to govern themselves and decide what would be best for their own situation

15 Differences: North and South
Class Structure: North generally based on wealth; South based on wealth and being “born into the right family” Slavery: North wanted it abolished; South supported it Southern planter system consisted of large and small categories; the wealthiest had the most land and the most slaves Economy: Northern based on mining, industry, banks, stores, and railroads; Southern based on agriculture, including cotton, rice, and indigo Southerners resented tariffs, which raised import prices; the South imported more than the North South dependent on slave labor

16 Many thousands of Africans died during the voyage from freedom in Africa to bondage in America.

17 Three ways slavery was profitable:
1. labor Letting (renting out) slaves 2. speculation

18 Freed Blacks and Slaves
500,000 freed blacks; only 6 percent lived in South (mostly Virginia and Maryland) By 1860, 11.5 percent of nation’s 4 million slaves lived in Georgia 3,500 freed blacks lived in Georgia by 1860 Slaves in the lower South cultivated “King Cotton,” which accounted for 50% of America’s exports

19 The Abolitionists Led the movement to do away with slavery
Many northern whites, some southern and free blacks were involved Made speeches, wrote books and articles, and offered their homes as safe houses for runaway slaves Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852), by Harriet Beecher Stowe, portrayed slavery’s evils; the book sold more than 1 million copies North Star and The Liberator were anti-slavery newspapers South believed the Constitution protected their right to own slaves


21 William Lloyd Garrison, publisher of The Liberator.
Frederick Douglass, publisher of The North Star. An abolitionist newspaper


23 The Missouri Compromise
Approved in 1820; Maine entered the Union as a free state, and Missouri entered as a slave state 11 states allowed slavery and 11 states did not Prohibited slavery north of 36°20' latitude (the southern border of Missouri), and included Louisiana Territory lands west of Missouri Temporarily solved slavery controversy between the states


25 The Compromise of 1850 California would enter Union as a free state
New Mexico territory would not become part of Texas or a guaranteed slave state The District of Columbia would no longer trade slaves, but slave owners there could keep their slaves Runaway slaves could be returned to their owners in slave states Utah and New Mexico territories could decide if they wanted to allow slaves or not

26 The Kansas-Nebraska Act
Created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska Those territories had right of popular sovereignty Popular sovereignty: When a territory asked for statehood, the people could vote on slavery Freesoilers in those territories fought against Abolitionists and proslavery supporters

27 The Dred Scott Decision
Supreme Court ruling in 1857 A slave filed suit after he lived in free states with his owner but was returned to slave state Court ruled that slaves were not citizens and could not file lawsuits Court also ruled that Congress could not stop slavery in the territories Decision further separated the North and South

28 Chief Justice Roger Taney Dred Scott At the time the Constitution was adopted, the Chief Justice wrote, blacks had been "regarded as beings of an inferior order" with "no rights which the white man was bound to respect."

29 Section 3: Slavery as a Way of Life
ESSENTIAL QUESTION What was life like for Georgia slaves during the Antebellum period?

30 Section 3: Slavery as a Way of Life
What words do I need to know? driver slave code arsenal Underground Railroad overseer

31 Three Ways Slavery Was Profitable
1. Labor 2. Letting (renting out) 3. Speculation

32 River Street Slave Barracoons

33 Interior of River Street Slave Barracoons

34 Cotton bound for New York being loaded in Savannah.

35 Hard work, Simple living
Slaves worked long hours in swampy rice fields or tobacco and cotton fields Work began at sunup and continued until sundown; overseers punished slaves who did not harvest enough Drivers, older slaves trusted by the plantation owner, also supervised the field hands Slave children, as young as five, also worked hard on the plantations and farms Slave cabins were small, very simply furnished, and crudely built; foods were basic


37 Swing Low, Sweet Chariot
Music was very important to slaves. Often the lyrics had a hidden meaning: Swing Low, Sweet Chariot I looked over Jordan (Ohio River) and what did I see? Coming for to carry me home! A band of angels (abolitionists) coming after me. Coming for to carry me home! (to freedom) “Call and response” singing maximized efficiency by keeping workers’ labor at the same pace and allowed the overseer to keep track of the day’s progress. rhythm

38 Slave Family Life Slave families often became separated
Owners encouraged marriage; slave children became property of the mother’s owner Religion was important; black preachers spoke of freedom and justice Spiritual songs encouraged slaves throughout their lives Education was nearly nonexistent, although minimal reading and writing skills were permitted by some slave owners

39 The Br’er Rabbit stories were a source of hope and encouragement for slaves.


41 Slave Rebellions 1800 – Gabriel Prosser, Richmond, VA (1,000)
1822 – Denmark Versey, Charleston, SC (5,000) Nat Turner led a rebellion in Virginia; at least 57 and perhaps as many as 85 whites died; Turner was hanged Nat Turner’s Rebellion and other unsuccessful rebellions prompted strict laws across the South designed to curtail slave movements, meetings, and efforts to learn to read and write These laws applied to both slaves and freed blacks


43 Slave Codes Took away nearly all rights of slaves
Slaves could not carry weapons, make any contact with white people People who tried to teach people of color were punished; slaves could not work any job involving reading and writing Slaves had little time to talk together

44 John Brown White abolitionist led a raid on federal arsenal (arms storehouse) at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia Brown wanted ammunition to lead a rebellion to free the South’s slaves He was captured and hanged for treason The Brown raid added to fear and distrust, especially in the South; to many Northerners, Brown became a hero


46 The Underground Railroad
Network of roads, houses, river crossings, boats, wagons, woods, and streams operated by blacks and whites Provided a trail of flight for runaway slaves seeking freedom in Canada or the Northern states Safe stops along the way called stations Former slave Harriet Tubman personally helped more than 300 slaves escape to freedom

47 Little Dipper The North Star (Polaris) pointed the way to freedom for runaway slaves. Big Dipper


49 Section 4: Antebellum Georgia
ESSENTIAL QUESTION What was Georgia like before the Civil War?

50 Section 4: Antebellum Georgia
What words do I need to know? Know-Nothing Party Great Revival Movement Milledgeville

51 Georgia’s Pre-War Economy
68,000 farms by 1860; cotton was chief crop 500 plantations (500 acres or more); most farms were less than 100 acres 60 percent of Georgians owned no slaves; only 236 had 100 or more slaves Half of Georgia’s total wealth was in slaves ($400 million) 1,890 factories in Georgia by 1860; about $11 million in value

52 Education Most Georgians had little education
20 percent of Georgians were illiterate in 1850 $100,000 allotted in 1858 to begin free schools; the outbreak of the Civil War delayed these plans Georgia’s first law school founded in 1859 (Athens) Slaves were not given educational opportunities

53 In this house, located in Savannah’s Historic District, Jane Devereaux taught slave children to read and write for 32 years!

54 Religion Georgians involved in the Great Revival Movement of the early 1800s Camp meetings popular, especially among Methodists By 1860, Georgia second only to Virginia in the South in number of churches Methodists and Baptists most common denominations

55 Camp Meeting

56 Antebellum Georgia Politics
Democrats and Whigs were two major political parties Democrats supported states’ rights; took strong stand for slavery Whigs mainly from upper social classes; favored moderate protective tariff and federal help for the South Most governors were Whigs; most legislators were Democrats

57 Know-Nothing Party Leading Georgians formed two new political parties; one party favored the Compromise of 1850 while the other did not A secret party, the Know-Nothing party, did not want immigrants to become citizens or anyone not born in the United States to hold political office Members answered all questions, “I don’t know”  By 1856, Democrats were dominant party; Dem. Joseph E. Brown, elected governor in 1856, served before, during, and after the Civil War                 

58 Section 5: The Election of 1860
ESSENTIAL QUESTION What steps led to Georgia’s secession from the Union in 1861?

59 Section 5: The Election of 1860
What words do I need to know? Republican Party secession platform ordinance Confederate States of America

60 The Republican Party Republican Party formed in 1854 in free states
Antislavery Whigs and Democrats joined Nominated Abraham Lincoln of Illinois as their candidate in 1860 Southern and Northern Democrats split over slavery issues and nominated separate candidates Southerners angrily viewed the plans of the Republicans as non-beneficial to the South




64 Georgia and Lincoln’s Election
Georgians were, for the most part, for the Union; however, they were strongly for states’ rights Despite lawmakers’ strong debates for and against secession, a Secession convention began in January 1861 in Milledgeville, the capital A secession ordinance (bill) passed The Southern states which seceded met in Montgomery, Alabama in February, 1861 and formed the Confederate States of America; Jefferson Davis was selected to be President


66 Georgians in Leadership
Robert Toombs named Secretary of State of the Confederate States of American (CSA) Alexander H. Stephens named Vice-President Governor Joseph E. Brown favored secession and used his terms as governor to prepare Georgia for war   

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